# Tag Archives: Data Science

## Types of Data Visualization: Examples

In today’s data-driven world, the ability to extract insights from vast amounts of information has become a critical skill for data scientists and analysts. Visualizing data through charts, graphs, and other types of visual representations can help them uncover patterns and relationships that might be difficult to spot otherwise. However, not all visualizations are created equal, and choosing the right type of visualization can make all the difference in communicating insights effectively. That’s why understanding the different types of visualization available is crucial for data visualization experts and data scientists. In this blog, we’ll explore some of the most common types of visualization, including comparison plots, relation plots, composition plots …

## Hypothesis Testing Steps & Examples

Hypothesis testing is a technique that helps scientists, researchers, or for that matter, anyone test the validity of their claims or hypotheses about real-world or real-life events in order to establish new knowledge. Hypothesis testing techniques are often used in statistics and data science to analyze whether the claims about the occurrence of the events are true, whether the results returned by performance metrics of machine learning models are representative of the models or they happened by chance. This blog post will cover some of the key statistical concepts including steps and examples in relation to what is hypothesis testing, how to formulate them and how to use them in …

## Statistics Terminologies Cheat Sheet & Examples

Have you ever felt overwhelmed by all the statistics terminology out there? From sampling distribution to central limit theorem to null hypothesis to p-values to standard deviation, it can be hard to keep up with all the statistical concepts and how they fit into your research. That’s why we created a Statistics Terminologies Cheat Sheet & Examples – a comprehensive guide to help you better understand the essential terms and their use in data analysis. Our cheat sheet covers topics like descriptive statistics, probability, hypothesis testing, and more. And each definition is accompanied by an example to help illuminate the concept even further. Understanding statistics terminology is critical for data …

## Machine Learning Bias Explained with Examples

In the artificial intelligence (AI) / machine learning (ML) powered world where predictive models have started getting used more often in decision-making areas, the primary concerns of policy makers, auditors and end users have been to make sure that these systems using the models are not making biased/unfair decisions based on model predictions (intentional or unintentional discrimination). Imagine industries such as banking, insurance, and employment where models are used as solutions to decision-making problems such as shortlisting candidates for interviews, approving loans/credits, deciding insurance premiums etc. How harmful it could be to the end users as these decisions may impact their livelihood based on biased predictions made by the model, thereby, …

## Machine Learning Concepts & Examples

Machine learning is a machine’s ability to learn from data. It has been around for decades, but machine learning is now being applied in nearly every industry and job function. In this blog post, we’ll cover a detailed introduction to what is machine learning (ML) including different definitions. We will also learn about different types of machine learning tasks, algorithms, etc along with real-world examples. What is machine learning & how does it work? Simply speaking, machine learning can be used to model our beliefs about real-world events. For example, let’s say a person came to a doctor with a certain blood report. A doctor based on his belief system …

## Chi-square test – Types, Concepts, Examples

The Chi-square (χ2) test is a statistical test used to determine whether the distribution of observed data is consistent with the distribution of data expected under a particular hypothesis. The Chi-square test can be used to compare or evaluate the independence of two distributions, or to assess the goodness of fit of a given distribution to observed data. In this blog post, we will discuss different types of Chi-square tests, the concepts behind them, and how to perform them using Python / R. As data scientists, it is important to have a strong understanding of the Chi-square test so that we can use it to make informed decisions about our …

## Geometric Distribution Concepts, Formula, Examples

Geometric Distribution, a widely used concept in probability theory, is used to represent the probability of achieving success or failure in a series of independent trials, where the probability of success remains constant. It is one of the essential tools used in a wide range of fields, including economics, engineering, physics, and statistics. As data scientists / statisticians, it is of utmost important to understand its concepts and applications in a clear manner. In this blog, we will introduce you to the basics of Geometric distribution, starting with its definition and properties. We will also explore the geometric distribution formula and how it is used to calculate the probability of …

## Ensemble Methods in Machine Learning: Examples

Machine learning models are often trained with a variety of different methods in order to create a more accurate prediction. Ensemble methods are one way to do this, and involve combining the predictions of several different models in order to get a more accurate result. When different models make predictions together, it can help create a more accurate result. Data scientists should care about this because it can help them create models that are more accurate. In this article, we will look at some of the common ensemble methods used in machine learning. Data scientists should care about this because it can help them create models that are more accurate. …

## Sklearn Neural Network Example – MLPRegressor

The Python Sklearn library is one of the most popular machine learning libraries, and it provides a wide range of algorithms for classification, regression, clustering, dimensionality reduction, and more. In this blog post, we will be focusing on training a neural network regression model using Sklearn MLPRegressor (Multi-layer Perceptron Regressor). We’ll go over different aspects of Sklearn MLPRegressor and how they work, as well as provide a step-by-step example of a neural network regression using Sklearn MLPRegressor. What is Neural Network? Neural networks are a type of machine learning / deep learning algorithm that mimics the way the human brain works. They are composed of multiple layers of neurons, which …

## Random Forest Classifier Python Example

Random forest classifiers are popular machine learning algorithms that are used for classification. In this post, you will learn about the concepts of random forest classifiers and how to train a Random Forest Classifier using the Python Sklearn library. This code will be helpful if you are a beginner data scientist or just want to quickly get a code sample to get started with training a machine learning model using the Random Forest algorithm. The following topics will be covered: What is a Random Forest Classifier & How do they Work? Random forests are a type of machine learning algorithm that is used for classification and regression tasks. A classifier …

## CART Decision Tree Python Example

The Classification and Regression Tree (CART) is a supervised machine learning algorithm used for classification, regression. In this blog, we will discuss what CART decision tree is, how it works, and provide a detailed example of its implementation using Python. What is CART & How does it work? CART stands for Classification And Regression Tree. It is a type of decision tree which can be used for both classification and regression tasks based on non-parametric supervised learning method. The following represents the algorithm steps. First and foremost, the data is split into training and test set. Take a feature K and split the training data set into two subsets based on …

## Decision Tree Concepts, Examples, Interview Questions

Decision tree is one of the most commonly used machine learning algorithms which can be used for solving both classification and regression problems. It is very simple to understand and use. Here is a lighter one representing how decision trees and related algorithms (random forest etc) are agile enough for usage. In this post, you will learn about some of the following in relation to machine learning algorithm – decision trees vis-a-vis one of the popular C5.0 algorithm used to build a decision tree for classification. In another post, we shall also be looking at CART methodology for building a decision tree model for classification. The post also presents a …

## Linear regression t-test: Formula, Example

In linear regression, the t-test is a statistical hypothesis testing technique that is used to test the linearity of the relationship between the response variable and different predictor variables. In other words, it is used to determine whether or not there is a linear correlation between the response and predictor variables. The t-test helps to determine if this linear relationship is statistically significant. As data scientists, it is of utmost importance to understand why t-statistics is used to determine the coefficients of the linear regression model. In this blog, we will discuss linear regression and t-test and related formulas and examples. For a detailed read on linear regression, check out …

## Linear Regression Explained with Real Life Example

In this post, the linear regression concept in machine learning is explained with multiple real-life examples. Both types of regression models (simple/univariate and multiple/multivariate linear regression) are taken up for sighting examples. In case you are a machine learning or data science beginner, you may find this post helpful enough. You may also want to check a detailed post on what is machine learning – What is Machine Learning? Concepts & Examples. What is Linear Regression? Linear regression is a machine learning concept that is used to build or train the models (mathematical models or equations) for solving supervised learning problems related to predicting continuous numerical value. Supervised learning problems …

## One-way ANOVA test: Concepts, Formula & Examples

The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test is a statistical procedure commonly used to compare the means values on a specific variable between three or more groups. The significance of the difference between the means of two samples can be judged through either t-test or z-test depending upon different criteria, but it becomes tricky when there is a need to simultaneously evaluate the significance of the difference amongst three or more sample means. This is where one-way ANOVA test comes to rescue. The ANOVA technique enables us to perform this simultaneous test and as such is considered to be an important tool of analysis. In this blog post, we will …

## Two-way ANOVA Test: Concepts, Formula & Examples

The two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test is a powerful tool for analyzing data and uncovering relationships between a dependent variable and two different independent variables. It’s used in fields like psychology, medicine, engineering, business, and other areas that require a deep understanding of how two separate variables interact and impact dependent variable. With the right knowledge, you can use this test to gain valuable insights into your data. Through a two-way ANOVA, data scientists are able to assess complex relationships between multiple variables and draw meaningful conclusions from the data. This helps them make informed decisions and identify patterns in the data that may have gone unnoticed otherwise. Let’s …