# Category Archives: Python

## Gradient Boosting Regression Python Examples

In this post, you will learn about the concepts of Gradient Boosting Regression with the help of Python Sklearn code example. Gradient Boosting algorithm is one of the key boosting machine learning algorithms apart from AdaBoost and XGBoost. What is Gradient Boosting Regression? Gradient Boosting algorithm is used to generate an ensemble model by combining the weak learners or weak predictive models. Gradient boosting algorithm can be used to train models for both regression and classification problem. Gradient Boosting Regression algorithm is used to fit the model which predicts the continuous value. Gradient boosting builds an additive mode by using multiple decision trees of fixed size as weak learners or …

## Hierarchical Clustering Explained with Python Example

In this post, you will learn about the concepts of Hierarchical clustering with the help of Python code example. As data scientist / machine learning enthusiasts, you would want to learn the concepts of hierarchical clustering in a great manner. The following topics will be covered in this post: What is hierarchical clustering? Hierarchical clustering Python example What is Hierarchical Clustering? Hierarchical clustering is an unsupervised learning algorithm which is based on clustering data based on hierarchical ordering. Recall that clustering is an algorithm which groups data points within multiple clusters such that data within each cluster are similar to each other while clusters are different each other. The hierarchical clustering can be classified …

## Keras Multi-class Classification using IRIS Dataset

In this post, you will learn about how to train a neural network for multi-class classification using Python Keras libraries and Sklearn IRIS dataset. As a deep learning enthusiasts, it will be good to learn about how to use Keras for training a multi-class classification neural network. The following topics are covered in this post: Keras neural network concepts for training multi-class classification model Python Keras code for fitting neural network using IRIS dataset Keras Neural Network Concepts for training Multi-class Classification Model Training a neural network for multi-class classification using Keras will require the following seven steps to be taken: Loading Sklearn IRIS dataset Prepare the dataset for training and testing …

## Python – How to Add Trend Line to Line Chart / Graph

In this plot, you will learn about how to add trend line to the line chart / line graph using Python Matplotlib.As a data scientist, it proves to be helpful to learn the concepts and related Python code which can be used to draw or add the trend line to the line charts as it helps understand the trend and make decisions. In this post, we will consider an example of IPL average batting scores of Virat Kohli, Chris Gayle, MS Dhoni and Rohit Sharma of last 10 years, and, assess the trend related to their overall performance using trend lines. Let’s say that main reason why we want to …

## Python Sklearn – How to Generate Random Datasets

In this post, you will learn about some useful random datasets generators provided by Python Sklearn. There are many methods provided as part of Sklearn.datasets package. In this post, we will take the most common ones such as some of the following which could be used for creating data sets for doing proof-of-concepts solution for regression, classification and clustering machine learning algorithms. As data scientists, you must get familiar with these methods in order to quickly create the datasets for training models using different machine learning algorithms. Methods for generating datasets for Classification Methods for generating datasets for Regression Methods for Generating Datasets for Classification The following is the list of …

## Adaline Explained with Python Example

In this post, you will learn the concepts of Adaline (ADAptive LInear NEuron), a machine learning algorithm, along with Python example.As like Perceptron, it is important to understand the concepts of Adaline as it forms the foundation of learning neural networks. The concept of Perceptron and Adaline could found to be useful in understanding how gradient descent can be used to learn the weights which when combined with input signals is used to make predictions based on unit step function output. Here are the topics covered in this post in relation to Adaline algorithm and its Python implementation: What’s Adaline? Adaline Python implementation Model trained using Adaline implementation What’s Adaline? …

## Stochastic Gradient Descent Python Example

In this post, you will learn the concepts of Stochastic Gradient Descent using Python example. In order to demonstrate Stochastic gradient descent concepts, Perceptron machine learning algorithm is used. Recall that Perceptron is also called as single-layer neural network. Before getting into details, lets quickly understand the concepts of Perceptron and underlying learning algorithm such SGD is used. You may want to check out the concepts of gradient descent on this page – Gradient Descent explained with examples. The following topics are covered in this post: Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) for Learning Perceptron Model Perceptron algorithm can be used to train binary classifier that classifies the data as either 1 or 0. …

## Python Implementations of Machine Learning Models

This post highlights some great pages where python implementations for different machine learning models can be found. If you are a data scientist who wants to get a fair idea of whats working underneath different machine learning algorithms, you may want to check out the Ml-from-scratch page. The top highlights of this repository are python implementations for the following: Supervised learning algorithms (linear regression, logistic regression, decision tree, random forest, XGBoost, Naive bayes, neural network etc) Unsupervised learning algorithms (K-means, GAN, Gaussian mixture models etc) Reinforcement learning algorithms (Deep Q Network) Dimensionality reduction techniques such as PCA Deep learning Examples that make use of above mentioned algorithms Here is an insight into …

## Lasso Regression Explained with Python Example

In this post, you will learn concepts of Lasso regression along with Python Sklearn examples. Lasso regression algorithm introduces penalty against model complexity (large number of parameters) using regularization parameter. Other two similar form of regularized linear regression are Ridge regression and Elasticnet regression which will be discussed in future posts. In this post, the following topics are discussed: What’s Lasso regression? Lasso regression python example Lasso regression cross validation python example What’s Lasso Regression? LASSO stands for least absolute shrinkage and selection operator. Pay attention to words, “least absolute shrinkage” and “selection”. We will refer it shortly. Lasso regression is also called as L1-norm regularization. Lasso regression is an extension …

## Python – Extract Text from HTML using BeautifulSoup

In this post, you will learn about how to use Python BeautifulSoup and NLTK to extract words from HTML pages and perform text analysis such as frequency distribution. The example in this post is based on reading HTML pages directly from the website and performing text analysis. However, you could also download the web pages and then perform text analysis by loading pages from local storage. Python Code for Extracting Text from HTML Pages Here is the Python code for extracting text from HTML pages and perform text analysis. Pay attention to some of the following in the code given below: URLLib request is used to read the html page …

## Python – Extract Text from PDF file using PDFMiner

In this post, you will get a quick code sample on how to use PDFMiner, a Python library, to extract text from PDF files and perform text analysis. I will be posting several other posts in relation to how to use other Python libraries for extracting text from PDF files. In this post, the following topic will get covered: How to set up PDFMiner Python code for extracting text from PDF file using PDFMiner Setting up PDFMiner Here is how you would set up PDFMiner.six. You could execute the following command to get set up with PDFMiner while working in Jupyter notebook: Python Code for Extracting Text from PDF file …

## RANSAC Regression Explained with Python Examples

In this post, you will learn about the concepts of RANSAC regression algorithm along with Python Sklearn example for RANSAC regression implementation using RANSACRegressor. RANSAC regression algorithm is useful for handling the outliers dataset. Instead of taking care of outliers using statistical and other techniques, one can use RANSAC regression algorithm which takes care of the outlier data. In this post, the following topics are covered: Introduction to RANSAC regression RANSAC Regression Python code example Introduction to RANSAC Regression RANSAC (RANdom SAmple Consensus) algorithm takes linear regression algorithm to the next level by excluding the outliers in the training dataset. The presence of outliers in the training dataset does impact …

## Mean Squared Error or R-Squared – Which one to use?

In this post, you will learn about the concepts of mean-squared error (MSE) and R-squared, difference between them and which one to use when working with regression models such as linear regression model. You also learn Python examples to understand the concepts in a better manner. In this post, the following topics are covered: Introduction to Mean Squared Error (MSE) and R-Squared Difference between MSE and R-Squared MSE or R-Squared – Which one to use? MSE and R-Squared Python code example Introduction to Mean Square Error (MSE) and R-Squared In this section, you will learn about the concepts of mean squared error and R-squared. These are used for evaluating the …

## Linear Regression Explained with Python Examples

In this post, you will learn about concepts of linear regression along with Python Sklearn examples for training linear regression models. Linear regression belongs to class of parametric models and used to train supervised models. The following topics are covered in this post: Introduction to linear regression Linear regression concepts / terminologies Linear regression python code example Introduction to Linear Regression Linear regression is a machine learning algorithm used to predict the value of continuous response variable. The predictive analytics problems that are solved using linear regression models are called as supervised learning problems as it requires that the value of response / target variables must be present and used for training the models. …

## Correlation Concepts, Matrix & Heatmap using Seaborn

In this post, you will learn about the concepts of Correlation and how to draw Correlation Heatmap using Python Seaborn library for different columns in Pandas dataframe. The following are some of the topics covered in this post: Introduction to Correlation What is correlation heatmap? Corrleation heatmap Pandas / Seaborn python example Introduction to Correlation Correlation is a term used to represent the statistical measure of linear relationship between two variables. It can also be defined as the measure of dependence between two different variables. If there are multiple variables and the goal is to find correlation between all of these variables and store them using appropriate data structure, the …

## K-Nearest Neighbors Explained with Python Examples

In this post, you will learn about K-nearest neighbors algorithm with Python Sklearn examples. K-nearest neighbors algorithm is used for solving both classification and regression machine learning problems. The following topics will get covered in this post: Introduction to K-nearest neighbors What is the most appropriate value of K? K-NN Python example Introduction to K-nearest neighbors K-nearest neighbors is a supervised learning algorithm which can be used to solve both classification and regression problems. It belongs to the class of non-parametric models. The models don’t learn parameters from training data set to come up with a discriminative function in order to classify the test or unseen data set. Rather model memorizes the training data …