# Tag Archives: Data Science

## Geometric Distribution Explained with Python Examples

In this post, you will learn about the concepts of Geometric probability distribution with the help of real-world examples and Python code examples. It is of utmost importance for data scientists to understand and get an intuition of different kinds of probability distribution including geometric distribution. You may want to check out some of my following posts on other probability distribution. Normal distribution explained with Python examples Binomial distribution explained with 10+ examples Hypergeometric distribution explained with 10+ examples In this post, the following topics have been covered: Geometric probability distribution concepts Geometric distribution python examples Geometric distribution real-world examples Geometric Probability Distribution Concepts Geometric probability distribution is a discrete …

## Top 10 Analytics Strategies for Great Data Products

In this post, you will learn about the top 10 data analytics strategies which will help you create successful data products. These strategies will be helpful in case you are setting up a data analytics practice or center of excellence (COE). As an AI / Machine Learning / Data Science stakeholders, it will be important to understand these strategies in order to deliver analytics solution which creates business value having positive business impact. Here are the top 10 data analytics strategies: Identify top 2-3 business problems Identify related business / engineering organizations Create measurement plan by identifying right KPIs Identify analytics deliverables such as analytics reports, predictions etc Gather data …

## Keras CNN Image Classification Example

In this post, you will learn about how to train a Keras Convolution Neural Network (CNN) for image classification. Before going ahead and looking at the Python / Keras code examples and related concepts, you may want to check my post on Convolution Neural Network – Simply Explained in order to get a good understanding of CNN concepts. Keras CNN Image Classification Code Example First and foremost, we will need to get the image data for training the model. In this post, Keras CNN used for image classification uses the Kaggle Fashion MNIST dataset. Fashion-MNIST is a dataset of Zalando’s article images—consisting of a training set of 60,000 examples and a …

## Data Quality Challenges for Machine Learning Models

In this post, you will learn about some of the key data quality challenges which need to be dealt with in a consistent and sustained manner to ensure high quality machine learning models. Note that high quality models can be termed as models which generalizes better (lower true error with predictions) with unseen data or data derived from larger population. As a data science architect or quality assurance (QA) professional dealing with quality of machine learning models, you must learn some of these challenges and plan appropriate development processes to deal with these challenges. Here are some of the key data quality challenges which need to be tackled appropriately in …

## Neural Network Back-Propagation Python Examples

In this post, you will learn about the concepts of neural network back propagation algorithm along with Python examples. As a data scientist, it is very important to learn the concepts of back propagation algorithm if you want to get good at deep learning models. This is because back propagation algorithm is key to learning weights at different layers in the deep neural network. What’s Back Propagation Algorithm? The backpropagation algorithm represents the propagation of the gradients of outputs from each node (in each layer) on the final output, in the backward direction right up to the input layer nodes. All that is achieved using the backpropagation algorithm is to …

## Z-Score Explained with Ronaldo / Robert Example

In Champion’s league 2019-2020, here is the data related to their performance (ESPN.in). Player No. of Matches Played No. of Goals Scored Avg Goals / Matches Christiano Ronaldo 8 4 0.5 Robert Lewandowski 10 15 1.5 Table 1. Ronaldo / Robert performance in 2019-2020 Champion’s League . Well, the average goals / match indicates that Robert Lewandowski played much better than Christiano Ronaldo. However, can we conclude the same using statistical measures? How could we find out if they performed better than their own performance over last 7-8 years? This is where Z-Score comes into picture. In above evaluation, what is used to compare the performance is average goals / …

## Data Storytelling Explained with Examples

In this post, you will learn about some of the key concepts in relation to data storytelling and why data scientists / data analyst should acquire this skill. Data storytelling is one of the key skills which data scientists would need to acquire in order to do a great job in representing the data with story. Most of the time, it has been seen that data scientists merely present multiple plots with the sole aim of showing the logic and reasoning. However, it is equally important to represent the data as story as it results in an emotional connect with stakeholders and help them make the decisions. Thus, data scientists …

## Python – How to Add Trend Line to Line Chart / Graph

In this plot, you will learn about how to add trend line to the line chart / line graph using Python Matplotlib.As a data scientist, it proves to be helpful to learn the concepts and related Python code which can be used to draw or add the trend line to the line charts as it helps understand the trend and make decisions. In this post, we will consider an example of IPL average batting scores of Virat Kohli, Chris Gayle, MS Dhoni and Rohit Sharma of last 10 years, and, assess the trend related to their overall performance using trend lines. Let’s say that main reason why we want to …

## Different Types of Activation Functions using Animation

In this post, you will be seeing different types of activation functions used in neural networks in form of an animation. If you are starting on deep learning and wanted to know about different types of activation functions, you may want to bookmark this page for quicker access in future. Without further ado, let’s take a look at the animation which represents different types of activation functions: Here is the list of different types of activation functions shown in above animation: Identity function (Used in Adaline – Adaptive Linear Neuron) Sigmoid function Tanh functon ArcTan function (inverse tangent function) ReLU (Rectified Linear Unit) Leaky ReLU (Improved version of ReLU) Randomized …

## What’s Softmax Function & Why do we need it?

In this post, you will learn about the concepts of Softmax function with Python code example and why do we need Softmax function? As a data scientist / machine learning enthusiasts, it is very important to understand the concepts of Softmax function as it helps in understanding the algorithms such as neural network, multinomial logistic regression in better manner. Note that Softmax function is used in various multiclass classification machine learning algorithms such as multinomial logistic regression (thus, also called as softmax regression), neural networks etc. What’s Softmax Function? Simply speaking, Softmax function converts raw values (as outcome of functions) into probabilities. Here is how the softmax function looks like: …

## Cross Entropy Loss Explained with Python Examples

In this post, you will learn the concepts related to cross-entropy loss function along with Python and which machine learning algorithms use cross entropy loss function as an optimization function. Cross entropy loss is used as a loss function for models which predict the probability value as output (probability distribution as output). Logistic regression is one such algorithm whose output is probability distribution. In this post, the following topics are covered: What’s cross entropy loss? Cross entropy loss explained with Python examples What’s Cross Entropy Loss? Cross entropy loss function is an optimization function which is used for training machine learning classification models which classifies the data by predicting the …

## Python Sklearn – How to Generate Random Datasets

In this post, you will learn about some useful random datasets generators provided by Python Sklearn. There are many methods provided as part of Sklearn.datasets package. In this post, we will take the most common ones such as some of the following which could be used for creating data sets for doing proof-of-concepts solution for regression, classification and clustering machine learning algorithms. As data scientists, you must get familiar with these methods in order to quickly create the datasets for training models using different machine learning algorithms. Methods for generating datasets for Classification Methods for generating datasets for Regression Methods for Generating Datasets for Classification The following is the list of …

## Neural Networks and Mathematical Models Examples

In this post, you will learn about concepts of neural networks with the help of mathematical models examples. In simple words, you will learn about how to represent the neural networks using mathematical equations. As a data scientist / machine learning researcher, it would be good to get a sense of how the neural networks can be converted into a bunch of mathematical equations for calculating different values. Having a good understanding of representing the activation function output of different computation units / nodes / neuron in different layers would help in understanding back propagation algorithm in a better and easier manner. This will be dealt in one of the …

## Adaline Explained with Python Example

In this post, you will learn the concepts of Adaline (ADAptive LInear NEuron), a machine learning algorithm, along with Python example.As like Perceptron, it is important to understand the concepts of Adaline as it forms the foundation of learning neural networks. The concept of Perceptron and Adaline could found to be useful in understanding how gradient descent can be used to learn the weights which when combined with input signals is used to make predictions based on unit step function output. Here are the topics covered in this post in relation to Adaline algorithm and its Python implementation: What’s Adaline? Adaline Python implementation Model trained using Adaline implementation What’s Adaline? …

## Perceptron Explained using Python Example

In this post, you will learn about the concepts of Perceptron with the help of Python example. It is very important for data scientists to understand the concepts related to Perceptron as a good understanding lays the foundation of learning advanced concepts of neural networks including deep neural networks (deep learning). In this post, the following topics are covered: What is Perceptron? Perceptron Python code example What is Perceptron? Perceptron is a machine learning algorithm which mimics how a neuron in the brain works. It is also called as single layer neural network as the output is decided based on the outcome of just one activation function which represents a neuron. Let’s first understand …

## Stochastic Gradient Descent Python Example

In this post, you will learn the concepts of Stochastic Gradient Descent using Python example. In order to demonstrate Stochastic gradient descent concepts, Perceptron machine learning algorithm is used. Recall that Perceptron is also called as single-layer neural network. Before getting into details, lets quickly understand the concepts of Perceptron and underlying learning algorithm such SGD is used. You may want to check out the concepts of gradient descent on this page – Gradient Descent explained with examples. The following topics are covered in this post: Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) for Learning Perceptron Model Perceptron algorithm can be used to train binary classifier that classifies the data as either 1 or 0. …