Category Archives: Machine Learning

Gradient Descent in Machine Learning: Python Examples

Last updated: 19th April, 2024 This post will teach you about the gradient descent algorithm and its importance in training machine learning models. For a data scientist, it is of utmost importance to get a good grasp on the concepts of gradient descent algorithm as it is widely used for optimizing/minimizing the objective function / loss function / cost function related to various machine learning models such as regression, neural network, etc. in terms of learning optimal weights/parameters. This algorithm is essential because it underpins many machine learning models, enabling them to learn from data by optimizing their performance.  Introduction to Gradient Descent Algorithm The gradient descent algorithm is an optimization …

Continue reading

Posted in Data Science, Machine Learning, Python. Tagged with , , .

Loss Function vs Cost Function vs Objective Function: Examples

Difference between loss function vs cost function vs objective function

Last updated: 19th April, 2024 Among the terminologies used in training machine learning models, the concepts of loss function, cost function, and objective function often cause a fair amount of confusion, especially for aspiring data scientists and practitioners in the early stages of their careers. The reason for this confusion isn’t unfounded, as these terms are similar / closely related, often used interchangeably, and yet, they are different and serve distinct purposes in the realm of machine learning algorithms. Understanding the differences and specific roles of loss function, cost function, and objective function is more than a mere exercise in academic rigor. By grasping these concepts, data scientists can make …

Continue reading

Posted in Data Science, Machine Learning.

Model Parallelism vs Data Parallelism: Examples

Model Parallelism vs Data Parallelism

Last updated: 19th April, 2024 Model parallelism and data parallelism are two strategies used to distribute the training of large machine-learning models across multiple computing resources, such as GPUs. They form key categories of multi-GPU training paradigms. These strategies are particularly important in deep learning, where models and datasets can be very large. What’s Data Parallelism? In data parallelism, we break down the data into small batches. Each GPU works on one batch of data at a time. It calculates two things: the loss, which tells us how far off our model’s predictions are from the actual outcomes, and the loss gradients, which guide us on how to adjust the …

Continue reading

Posted in Deep Learning, Machine Learning. Tagged with , .

Model Complexity & Overfitting in Machine Learning: How to Reduce

model complexity vs model overfitting vs model accuracy

Last updated: 4th April, 2024 In machine learning, model complexity, and overfitting are related in that the model overfitting is a problem that can occur when a model is too complex for different reasons. This can cause the model to fit the noise in the data rather than the underlying pattern. As a result, the model will perform poorly when applied to new and unseen data. In this blog post, we will discuss model complexity and how you can avoid overfitting in your machine-learning models by handling the model complexity. As data scientists, it is of utmost importance to understand the concepts related to model complexity and how it impacts …

Continue reading

Posted in Data Science, Machine Learning. Tagged with , .

Self-Prediction vs Contrastive Learning: Examples

Contrastive Learning - Learning Embedding Space wheer similar objects are grouped together

In the dynamic realm of AI, where labeled data is often scarce and costly, self-supervised learning helps unlock new machine learning use cases by harnessing the inherent structure of data for enhanced understanding without reliance on extensive labeled datasets as in the case of supervised learning. Simply speaking, self-supervised learning, at its core, is about teaching models to learn from the data itself, turning unlabeled data into a rich source of learning. There are two distinct methodologies used in self-supervised learning. They are the self-prediction method and contrastive learning method. In this blog, we will learn about their concepts and differences with the help of examples. What is the Self-Prediction …

Continue reading

Posted in Deep Learning, Machine Learning. Tagged with .

Free IBM Data Sciences Courses on Coursera

Free Data Science Courses from IBM

In the rapidly evolving fields of Data Science and Artificial Intelligence, staying ahead means continually learning and adapting. In this blog, there is a list of around 20 free data science-related courses from IBM available on that can help data science enthusiasts master different domains in AI / Data Science / Machine Learning. This list includes courses related to the core technical skills and knowledge needed to excel in these innovative fields. Foundational Knowledge: Understanding the essence of Data Science lays the groundwork for a successful career in this field. A solid foundation helps you grasp complex concepts easily and contributes to better decision-making, problem-solving, and the capacity to …

Continue reading

Posted in Career Planning, Data analytics, Data Science, Machine Learning, Online Courses, Python. Tagged with , , , .

Self-Supervised Learning vs Transfer Learning: Examples

self-supervised-learning vs transfer learning

Last updated: 3rd March, 2024 Understanding the difference between self-supervised learning and transfer learning, along with their practical applications, is crucial for any data scientist looking to optimize model performance and efficiency. Self-supervised learning and transfer learning are two pivotal techniques in machine learning, each with its unique approach to leveraging data for model training. Transfer learning capitalizes on a model pre-trained on a broad dataset with diverse categories, to serve as a foundational model for a more specialized task. his method relies on labeled data, often requiring significant human effort to label. Self-supervised learning, in contrast, pre-trains models using unlabeled data, creatively generating its labels from the inherent structure …

Continue reading

Posted in Data Science, Machine Learning, NLP. Tagged with , , .

Retrieval Augmented Generation (RAG) & LLM: Examples

Retrieval augmented Generation RAG pattern for LLMs

Last updated: 26th Jan, 2024 Have you ever wondered how to seamlessly integrate the vast knowledge of Large Language Models (LLMs) with the specificity of domain-specific knowledge stored in file storage, image storage, vector databases, etc? As the world of machine learning continues to evolve, the need for more sophisticated and contextually relevant responses from LLMs becomes paramount. Lack of contextual knowledge can result in LLM hallucination thereby producing inaccurate, unsafe, and factually incorrect responses. This is where context augmentation with prompts, and, hence retrieval augmentated generation method, comes into the picture. For data scientists and product managers keen on deploying LLMs in production, the Retrieval Augmented Generation pattern offers …

Continue reading

Posted in Generative AI, Machine Learning, NLP. Tagged with , , .

NLP Tokenization in Machine Learning: Python Examples

NLP Tokenization Types and Examples in Machine Learning

Last updated: 1st Feb, 2024 Tokenization is a fundamental step in Natural Language Processing (NLP) where text is broken down into smaller units called tokens. These tokens can be words, characters, or subwords, and this process is crucial for preparing text data for further analysis like parsing or text generation. Tokenization plays a crucial role in training machine learning models, particularly Large Language Models (LLMs) like GPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer) series, BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers), and others. Tokenization is often the first step in preparing text data for machine learning. LLMs use tokenization as an essential data preprocessing step. Advanced tokenization techniques (like those used in BERT) allow …

Continue reading

Posted in Machine Learning, NLP, Python. Tagged with , , .

Large Language Models (LLMs): Types, Examples

Large language models - LLM - building blocks

Last updated: 31st Jan, 2024 Large language models (LLMs), being the key pillar of generative AI, have been gaining traction in the world of natural language processing (NLP) due to their ability to process massive amounts of text and generate accurate results related to predicting the next word in a sentence, given all the previous words. These different LLM models are trained on a large or broad corpus of text datasets, which contain hundreds of millions to billions of words. LLMs, as they are known, rely on complex algorithms including transformer architectures that shift through large datasets and recognize patterns at the word level. This data helps the LLMs better understand …

Continue reading

Posted in Data Science, Deep Learning, Generative AI, Large Language Models, Machine Learning, NLP. Tagged with , .

Amazon (AWS) Machine Learning / AI Services List

amazon machine learning services

Last updated: 30th Jan, 2024 Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a cloud computing platform that offers machine learning as one of its many services. AWS has been around for over 10 years and has helped data scientists leverage the Amazon AWS cloud to train machine learning models. AWS provides an easy-to-use interface that helps data scientists build, test, and deploy their machine learning models with ease. AWS also provides access to pre-trained machine learning models so you can start building your model without having to spend time training it first! You can get greater details on AWS machine learning services, data science use cases, and other aspects in this book – …

Continue reading

Posted in AWS, Cloud, Data Science, Machine Learning. Tagged with , , .

LLM Optimization for Inference – Techniques, Examples

LLM Inference Optimization Techniques Examples

One of the common challenges faced with the deployment of large language models (LLMs) while achieving low-latency completions (inferences) is the size of the LLMs. The size of LLM throws challenges in terms of compute, storage, and memory requirements. And, the solution to this is to optimize the LLM deployment by taking advantage of model compression techniques that aim to reduce the size of the model. In this blog, we will look into three different optimization techniques namely pruning, quantization, and distillation along with their examples. These techniques help model load quickly while enabling reduced latency during LLM inference. They reduce the resource requirements for the compute, storage, and memory. …

Continue reading

Posted in Generative AI, Large Language Models, Machine Learning, NLP, Python. Tagged with , , , .

How is ChatGPT Trained to Generate Desired Responses?

ChatGPT Training Process and Response Generation

Last updated: 27th Jan, 2024 Training an AI / Machine Learning model as sophisticated as the one used by ChatGPT involves a multi-step process that fine-tunes its ability to understand and generate human-like text. Let’s break down the ChatGPT training process into three primary steps. Note that OpenAI has not published any specific paper on this. However, the reference has been provided on this page – Introducing ChatGPT. Fine-tuning Base Model with Supervised Learning The first phase starts with collecting demonstration data. Here, prompts are taken from a dataset, and human labelers provide the desired output behavior, which essentially sets the standard for the AI’s responses. For example, if the …

Continue reading

Posted in ChatGPT, Data Science, Machine Learning. Tagged with , .

Machine Learning Lifecycle Example: From Data to Deployment

Machine Learning Lifecycle

Last updated: 27th Jan 2024 In this blog, we get an overview of the machine learning lifecycle, from initial data handling to the deployment and iterative improvement of ML models. You might want to check out this book for greater insights into machine learning (ML) concepts – Machine Learning Interviews. The following is the diagram representing the machine learning lifecycle while showcasing three key stages such as preparing data, ML development, and ML deployment. These three stages are explained later in this blog. Stage A: Preparing Data Preparing data for training machine learning models involves collecting data, constructing data pipelines for preprocessing, and refining the data to prepare it for …

Continue reading

Posted in Data, Data Science, Machine Learning, MLOps. Tagged with , .

Transfer Learning vs Fine Tuning LLMs: Differences

differences between transfer learning and fine tuning

Last updated: 23rd Jan, 2024 Two NLP concepts that are fundamental to large language models (LLMs) are transfer learning and fine-tuning pre-trained LLMs. Rather, true fine-tuning can also be termed as full fine-tuning because transfer learning is also a form of fine-tuning. Despite their interconnected nature, they are distinct methodologies that serve unique purposes when training foundation LLMs to achieve different objectives. In this blog, we will explore the differences between transfer Learning and full fine-tuning, learning about their characteristics and how they come into play in real-world scenarios related to natural language understanding (NLU) and natural language generation (NLG) tasks with the help of examples. We will also learn …

Continue reading

Posted in Deep Learning, Generative AI, Machine Learning, NLP. Tagged with , , , .

Generalization Errors in Machine Learning: Python Examples

Generalization Errors in Machine Learning

Last updated: 21st Jan, 2024 Machine Learning (ML) models are designed to make predictions or decisions based on data. However, a common challenge, data scientists face when developing these models is ensuring that they generalize well to new, unseen data. Generalization refers to a model’s ability to perform accurately on new, unseen examples after being trained on a limited set of data. When models don’t generalize well, they commit errors. These errors are called generalization errors. In this blog, you will learn about different types of generalization errors, with examples, and walk through a simple Python demonstration to illustrate these concepts. Types of Generalization Errors Generalization errors in machine learning …

Continue reading

Posted in Data Science, Machine Learning, Python. Tagged with , , .