Tag Archives: python

Python – Replace Missing Values with Mean, Median & Mode

Boxplot for deciding whether to use mean, mode or median for imputation

Missing values are common in dealing with real-world problems when the data is aggregated over long time stretches from disparate sources, and reliable machine learning modeling demands for careful handling of missing data. One strategy is imputing the missing values, and a wide variety of algorithms exist spanning simple interpolation (mean. median, mode), matrix factorization methods like SVD, statistical models like Kalman filters, and deep learning methods. Missing value imputation or replacing techniques help machine learning models learn from incomplete data. There are three main missing value imputation techniques – mean, median and mode. Mean is the average of all values in a set, median is the middle number in …

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Accuracy, Precision, Recall & F1-Score – Python Examples

Classification models are used in classification problems to predict the target class of the data sample. The classification model predicts the probability that each instance belongs to one class or another. It is important to evaluate the performance of the classifications model in order to use these models in production for solving real world problems. Performance measures in machine learning classification models are used to assess how well machine learning classification algorithms perform in a given context. These performance metrics include accuracy, precision, recall and F1-score. Because it helps us understand the strengths and limitations of these models when making predictions in new situations, model performance is essential for machine …

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Bagging Classifier Python Code Example

Bagging Classifier explained with Python code examples

Bagging is a type of ensemble machine learning approach that combines the outputs from many learner to improve performance. These algorithms function by breaking down the training set into subsets and running them through various machine-learning models, after which combining their predictions when they return together to generate an overall prediction for each instance in the original data. In this blog post, you will learn about the concept of Bagging along with Bagging Classifier Python code example.  Bagging is commonly used in machine learning for classification problems, particularly when using decision trees or artificial neural networks as part of a boosting ensemble. It has been applied to various machine-learning algorithms including decision stumps, …

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14 Python Automl Frameworks Data Scientists Can Use

Python automl frameworks

In this post, you will learn about Automated Machine Learning (AutoML) frameworks for Python that can use to train machine learning models. For data scientists, especially beginners, who are unfamiliar with Automl, it is a tool designed to make the process of generating machine learning models in an automated manner, user-friendly, and less time-consuming. The goal of Automl is not just about making it easier for machine learning (ML) developers but also democratizing access to model development. What is AutoML? AutoML refers to automating some or all steps of building machine learning models, including selection and configuration of training data, tuning the performance metric(s), selecting/constructing features, training multiple models, evaluating …

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Perceptron Explained using Python Example

In this post, you will learn about the concepts of Perceptron with the help of Python example. It is very important for data scientists to understand the concepts related to Perceptron as a good understanding lays the foundation of learning advanced concepts of neural networks including deep neural networks (deep learning).  In this post, the following topics are covered: What is Perceptron? Perceptron Python code example What is Perceptron? Perceptron is a machine learning algorithm which mimics how a neuron in the brain works. It is also called as single layer neural network consisting of a single neuron. The output of this neural network is decided based on the outcome of just one activation …

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Python – Text Classification using Bag-of-words Model

Bag of words technique to convert to numerical feature vector

In this post, you will learn about the concepts of bag-of-words (BoW) model and how to train a text classification model using Python Sklearn. Some of the most common text classification problems includes sentiment analysis, spam filtering etc. In these problems, one can apply bag-of-words technique to train machine learning models for text classification. It will be good to understand the concepts of bag-or-words model while beginning on learning advanced NLP techniques for text classification in machine learning. The following topics will be covered in this post: What is a bag-of-words model? How to fit a bag-of-words model using Python Sklearn? How to fit a text classification model using bag-of-words technique? …

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Python Scraper for GoogleNews, Twitter, Reddit & Arxiv

Python scraper GoogleNews Twitter Reddit Arxiv

In this post, you will get the Python code for scraping latest and greatest news about any topics from Google News, Twitter, Reddit and Arxiv. This could prove to be very useful for data scientist, machine learning enthusiats to keep track of latest and greatest happening in the field of artificial intelligence. If you are doing some research work, these pieces of code would prove to be very handy to quickly access the information. The code in this post has been worked out in Google Colab notebook. First and foremost, import the necessary Python libraries such as the following for GoogleNews, Twitter and Arxiv.  Python Code for mining GoogleNews Here …

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Reddit Scraper Code using Python & Reddit API

Reddit app client id and secret token

In this post, you will get Python code sample using which you can search Reddit for specific subreddit posts including hot posts. Reddit API is used in the Python code. This code will be helpful if you quickly want to scrape Reddit for popular posts in the field of machine learning (subreddit –  r/machinelearning), data science (subreddit – r/datascience), deep learning (subreddit – r/deeplearning) etc.   There will be two steps to be followed to scrape Reddit for popular posts in any specific subreddits. Python code for authentication and authorization Python code for retrieving the popular posts Check the Reddit API documentation page to learn about Reddit APIs. Python code for …

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Mining Twitter Data – Python Code Example

Twitter data mining with Python Twitter API

In this post, you will learn about how to get started with mining Twitter data. This will be very helpful if you would like to build machine learning models based on NLP techniques.  The Python source code used in this post is worked out using Jupyter notebook. The following are key aspects of getting started with Python Twitter APIs.  Set up Twitter dev app and Python Twitter package Establish connection with Twitter Twitter API example – location-based trends, user timeline, etc Search twitter by hashtags Setup Twitter Dev App & Python Twitter Package In this section, you will learn about the following two key aspects before you get started with …

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Python Scraper Code to Search Arxiv Latest Papers

python arxiv library

In this post, you will learn about Python source code related to search Arxiv for relevant and latest machine learning and data science research papers. If you are looking for a faster way to research on Arxiv papers without really going to the Arxiv website, you may want to get this piece of code in your kitty. You can further automate the Arxiv search to get notified based on some logic. Without further ado, let’s get started.  Step 1: Install Python Arxiv Library As a first step, install the Python Arxiv library using the code such as below in your Jupyter notebook or Google colab instance: Step 2: Execute the …

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Google News Search Python API Example

In this post, you will learn about how to use GoogleNews search Python library to get or retrieve or scrape news from Google News for last N number of days. This would be very helpful for someone wanting to track new work / projects in relation to machine learning, data science, deep learning or any field including sports, politics etc. Without further ado, lets jump in right away. You can log into Google colab and practise the code.  Step 1: First and foremost, lets install GoogleNews python library. Step 2: Instantiate GoogleNews object. One can pass the language and period to instantiate the object. The parameter, period, represents the news …

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Python – How to Create Dictionary using Pandas Series

In this post, you will learn about one of the important Pandas fundamental data structure namely Series and how it can be used as a dictionary. It will be useful for beginner data scientist to understand the concept of Pandas Series object.  A dictionary is a structure that maps arbitrary keys to a set of arbitrary values. Pandas Series is a one-dimensional array of indexed data. It can be created using a list or an array. Pandas Series can be thought of as a special case of Python dictionary. It is a structure which maps typed keys to a set of typed values. Here are the three different ways in …

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Free Online Books – Machine Learning with Python

Python data science

This post lists down free online books for machine learning with Python. These books covers topiccs related to machine learning, deep learning, and NLP. This post will be updated from time to time as I discover more books.  Here are the titles of these books: Python data science handbook Building machine learning systems with Python Deep learning with Python Natural language processing with Python Think Bayes Scikit-learn tutorial – statistical learning for scientific data processing Python Data Science Handbook Covers topics such as some of the following: Introduction to Numpy Data manipulation with Pandas Visualization with Matplotlib Machine learning topics (Linear regression, SVM, random forest, principal component analysis, K-means clustering, Gaussian …

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Gradient Boosting Regression Python Examples

Gradient Boosting Regressor Feature Importances

In this post, you will learn about the concepts of Gradient Boosting Regression with the help of Python Sklearn code example. Gradient Boosting algorithm is one of the key boosting machine learning algorithms apart from AdaBoost and XGBoost.  What is Gradient Boosting Regression? Gradient Boosting algorithm is used to generate an ensemble model by combining the weak learners or weak predictive models. Gradient boosting algorithm can be used to train models for both regression and classification problem. Gradient Boosting Regression algorithm is used to fit the model which predicts the continuous value. Gradient boosting builds an additive mode by using multiple decision trees of fixed size as weak learners or …

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Hierarchical Clustering Explained with Python Example

In this post, you will learn about the concepts of Hierarchical clustering with the help of Python code example. As data scientist / machine learning enthusiasts, you would want to learn the concepts of hierarchical clustering in a great manner. The following topics will be covered in this post: What is hierarchical clustering? Hierarchical clustering Python example What is Hierarchical Clustering? Hierarchical clustering is an unsupervised learning algorithm which is based on clustering data based on hierarchical ordering. Recall that clustering is an algorithm which groups data points within multiple clusters such that data within each cluster are similar to each other while clusters are different each other. The hierarchical clustering can be classified …

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Keras CNN Image Classification Example

In this post, you will learn about how to train a Keras Convolution Neural Network (CNN) for image classification. Before going ahead and looking at the Python / Keras code examples and related concepts, you may want to check my post on Convolution Neural Network – Simply Explained in order to get a good understanding of CNN concepts. Keras CNN Image Classification Code Example First and foremost, we will need to get the image data for training the model. In this post, Keras CNN used for image classification uses the Kaggle Fashion MNIST dataset. Fashion-MNIST is a dataset of Zalando’s article images—consisting of a training set of 60,000 examples and a …

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