Tag Archives: machine learning

Model Complexity & Overfitting in Machine Learning

model complexity vs model overfitting vs model accuracy

In machine learning, model complexity and overfitting are related in a manner that the model overfitting is a problem that can occur when a model is too complex due to different reasons. This can cause the model to fit the noise in the data rather than the underlying pattern. As a result, the model will perform poorly when applied to new and unseen data. In this blog post, we will discuss what model complexity is and how you can avoid overfitting in your machine learning models by handling the model complexity. As data scientists, it is of utmost importance to understand the concepts related to model complexity and how it …

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Activation Functions in Neural Networks: Concepts

The activation functions are critical to understanding neural networks. It is important to use the activation function in order to train the neural network. There are many activation functions available for data scientists to choose from, so it can be difficult to choose which activation function will work best for their needs. In this blog post, we look at different activation functions and provide examples of when they should be used in different types of neural networks. If you are starting on deep learning and wanted to know about different types of activation functions, you may want to bookmark this page for quicker access in the future. What are activation …

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Neural Network Explained with Perceptron Example

Single layer neural network

Neural networks are an important part of machine learning, so it is essential to understand how they work. A neural network is a computer system that has been modeled based on a biological neural network comprising neurons connected with each other. It can be built to solve machine learning tasks, like classification and regression problems. The perceptron algorithm is a representation of how neural networks work. The artificial neurons were first proposed by Frank Rosenblatt in 1957 as models for the human brain’s perception mechanism. This post will explain the basics of neural networks with a perceptron example. You will understand how a neural network is built using perceptrons. This …

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How to Identify AI / Machine Learning Use Cases

identify ai and machine learning use cases

As AI and machine learning solutions and technologies continue to evolve, more and more businesses are looking for ways to incorporate them into their operations to realize a greater business impact. But with so many potential applications, it can be difficult to know where to start. In this blog post, we’ll outline some tips for identifying AI and machine learning use cases. We’ll also provide a few examples of how AI & machine learning can be used in business settings. So if you’re thinking about adding AI or machine learning to your toolkit, read on! This blog post will be appropriate for product managers, business analysts, data science architects, data …

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Softmax Regression Explained with Python Example

In this post, you will learn about the concepts of what is Softmax regression/function with Python code examples and why do we need them? As data scientist/machine learning enthusiasts, it is very important to understand the concepts of Softmax regression as it helps in understanding the algorithms such as neural networks, multinomial logistic regression, etc in a better manner. Note that the Softmax function is used in various multiclass classification machine learning algorithms such as multinomial logistic regression (thus, also called softmax regression), neural networks, etc. Before getting into the concepts of softmax regression, let’s understand what is softmax function. What’s Softmax function? Simply speaking, the Softmax function converts raw …

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Information Theory, Machine Learning & Cross-Entropy Loss

information theory - machine learning

 What is information theory? How is information theory related to machine learning? These are some of the questions that we will answer in this blog post. Information theory is the study of how much information is present in the signals or data we receive from our environment. AI / Machine learning (ML) is about extracting interesting representations/information from data which are then used for building the models. Thus, information theory fundamentals are key to processing information while building machine learning models. In this blog post, we will provide examples of information theory concepts and entropy concepts so that you can better understand them. We will also discuss how concepts of …

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Cross Entropy Loss Explained with Python Examples

In this post, you will learn the concepts related to the cross-entropy loss function along with Python code examples and which machine learning algorithms use the cross-entropy loss function as an objective function for training the models. Cross-entropy loss is used as a loss function for models which predict the probability value as output (probability distribution as output). Logistic regression is one such algorithm whose output is a probability distribution. You may want to check out the details on how cross-entropy loss is related to information theory and entropy concepts – Information theory & machine learning: Concepts What’s Cross-Entropy Loss? The cross-entropy loss function is an optimization function that is …

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Classification Problems Real-life Examples

classification problems real life examples

In this post, you will learn about some popular and most common real-life examples of machine learning classification problems. For beginner data scientists, these examples will prove to be helpful to gain perspectives on real-world problems which can be termed as machine learning classification problems. This post will be updated from time-to-time to include interesting real-life examples which can be solved by training machine learning classification models. Before going ahead and looking into examples, let’s understand a little about what is machine learning (ML) classification problem. You may as well skip this section if you are familiar with the definition of machine learning classification problems & solutions.  You may want …

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Linear Regression Explained with Python Examples

SSR, SSE and SST Representation in relation to Linear Regression

In this post, you will learn about concepts of linear regression along with Python Sklearn examples for training linear regression models. Linear regression belongs to class of parametric models and used to train supervised models.  The following topics are covered in this post: Introduction to linear regression Linear regression concepts / terminologies Linear regression python code example Introduction to Linear Regression Linear regression is a machine learning algorithm used to predict the value of continuous response variables. The predictive analytics problems that are solved using linear regression models are called supervised learning problems as it requires that the value of response/target variables must be present and used for training the models. Also, recall that …

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Mean Squared Error or R-Squared – Which one to use?

Mean Squared Error Representation

In this post, you will learn about the concepts of the mean-squared error (MSE) and R-squared, the difference between them, and which one to use when evaluating the linear regression models. You also learn Python examples to understand the concepts in a better manner What is Mean Squared Error (MSE)? The Mean squared error (MSE) represents the error of the estimator or predictive model created based on the given set of observations in the sample. Intuitively, the MSE is used to measure the quality of the model based on the predictions made on the entire training dataset vis-a-vis the true label/output value. In other words, it can be used to …

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Linear Regression Explained with Real Life Example

Multiple linear regression example

In this post, the linear regression concept in machine learning is explained with multiple real-life examples. Both types of regression models (simple/univariate and multiple/multivariate linear regression) are taken up for sighting examples. In case you are a machine learning or data science beginner, you may find this post helpful enough. You may also want to check a detailed post on what is machine learning – What is Machine Learning? Concepts & Examples. What is Linear Regression? Linear regression is a machine learning concept that is used to build or train the models (mathematical models or equations)  for solving supervised learning problems related to predicting continuous numerical value. Supervised learning problems …

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Tensor Broadcasting Explained with Examples

In this post, you will learn about the concepts of Tensor Broadcasting with the help of Python Numpy examples. Recall that Tensor is defined as the container of data (primarily numerical) most fundamental data structure used in Keras and Tensorflow. You may want to check out a related article on Tensor – Tensor explained with Python Numpy examples. Broadcasting of tensor is borrowed from Numpy broadcasting. Broadcasting is a technique used for performing arithmetic operations between Numpy arrays / Tensors having different shapes. In this technique, the following is done: As a first step, expand one or both arrays by copying elements appropriately so that after this transformation, the two tensors have the …

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Regularization in Machine Learning: Concepts & Examples

In machine learning, regularization is a technique used to avoid overfitting. This occurs when a model learns the training data too well and therefore performs poorly on new data. Regularization helps to reduce overfitting by adding constraints to the model-building process. As data scientists, it is of utmost importance that we learn thoroughly about the regularization concepts to build better machine learning models. In this blog post, we will discuss the concept of regularization and provide examples of how it can be used in practice. What is regularization and how does it work? Regularization in machine learning represents strategies that are used to reduce the generalization or test error of …

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Difference: Binary, Multiclass & Multi-label Classification

Multilayer classifier to tag image with cat, dog, rooster and a donkey

There are three main types of classification algorithms when dealing with machine learning classification problems: Binary, Multiclass, and Multilabel. In this blog post, we will discuss the differences between them and how they can be used to solve different problems. Binary classifiers can only classify data into two categories, while multiclass classifiers can classify data into more than two categories. Multilabel classifiers assign or tag the data to zero or more categories. Let’s take a closer look at each type! Binary classification & examples Binary classification is a type of supervised machine learning problem that requires classifying data into two mutually exclusive groups or categories. The two groups can be …

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Most Common Machine Learning Tasks

common machine learning tasks

This article represents some of the most common machine learning tasks that one may come across while trying to solve machine learning problems. Also listed is a set of machine learning methods that could be used to resolve these tasks. Please feel free to comment/suggest if I missed mentioning one or more important points. Also, sorry for the typos. You might want to check out the post on what is machine learning?. Different aspects of machine learning concepts have been explained with the help of examples. Here is an excerpt from the page: Machine learning is about approximating mathematical functions (equations) representing real-world scenarios. These mathematical functions are also referred …

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What is Machine Learning? Concepts & Examples

what is machine learning

Machine learning is a machine’s ability to learn from data. It has been around for decades, but machine learning is now being applied in nearly every industry and job function. In this blog post, we’ll cover a detailed introduction to what is machine learning including different definitions. We will also learn about different types of machine learning tasks, algorithms, etc along with real-world examples. What is machine learning & how does it work? Simply speaking, machine learning can be used to model our beliefs about real-world events. For example, let’s say a person came to a doctor with a certain blood report. A doctor based on his belief system learned …

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