# Tag Archives: machine learning

## Decision Tree Concepts, Examples, Interview Questions Decision tree is one of the most commonly used machine learning algorithms which can be used for solving both classification and regression problems. It is very simple to understand and use. Here is a lighter one representing how decision trees and related algorithms (random forest etc) are agile enough for usage.   In this post, you will learn about some of the following in relation to machine learning algorithm – decision trees vis-a-vis one of the popular C5.0 algorithm used to build a decision tree for classification. In another post, we shall also be looking at CART methodology for building a decision tree model for classification. The post also presents a …

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## Linear Regression Explained with Real Life Example In this post, the linear regression concept in machine learning is explained with multiple real-life examples. Both types of regression models (simple/univariate and multiple/multivariate linear regression) are taken up for sighting examples. In case you are a machine learning or data science beginner, you may find this post helpful enough. You may also want to check a detailed post on what is machine learning – What is Machine Learning? Concepts & Examples. What is Linear Regression? Linear regression is a machine learning concept that is used to build or train the models (mathematical models or equations)  for solving supervised learning problems related to predicting continuous numerical value. Supervised learning problems …

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## Bias-Variance in Machine Learning: Trade-off, Examples Bias and variance are two important properties of machine learning models. In this post, you will learn about the concepts of bias & variance in relation to the machine learning (ML) models. Bias refers to how well your model can represent all possible outcomes, whereas variance refers to how sensitive your predictions are to changes in the model’s parameters. The tradeoff between bias and variance is a fundamental problem in machine learning, and it is often necessary to experiment with different model types in order to find the balance that works best for a given dataset. In addition to learning the concepts related to bias vs variance trade-off, you would …

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## Bayesian thinking & Real-life Examples Bayesian thinking is a powerful way of looking at the world, and it can be useful in many real-life situations. Bayesian thinking involves using prior knowledge to make more accurate predictions about future events or outcomes. It is based on the Bayes theorem, which states that the probability of an event occurring is determined by its prior probability combined with new information as it becomes available. It is important for data scientists to learn about Bayesian thinking because it can help them make accurate predictions and draw more meaningful insights from data. In this blog post, we will discuss Bayesian thinking and provide some examples from everyday life to illustrate …

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## True Error vs Sample Error: Difference

Understanding the differences between true error and sample error is an important aspect of data science. In this blog post, we will be exploring the difference between these two common features of statistical inference. We’ll discuss what they are and how they differ from each other, as well as provide some examples of real-world scenarios where an understanding of both is important. By the end, you should have a better grasp of the differences between true error and sample error. In case you are a data scientist, you will want to understand the concept behind the true error and sample error. These concepts are key to understand for evaluating a …

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## Confidence Intervals Formula, Examples In this post, you will learn about the statistics concepts of confidence intervals in relation to machine learning models with the help of an example and Python code examples. You will learn about how to interpret confidence intervals, what are formulas for confidence intervals with the help of examples. When you get a hypothesis function by training a machine learning classification model, you evaluate the hypothesis/model by calculating the classification error. The classification error is calculated on the sample of the data used for training the model. However, does this classification error for the sample (sample error) also represent (same as) the classification error of the hypothesis/model for the entire …

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## Support Vector Machine (SVM) Python Example In this post, you will learn about the concepts of Support Vector Machine (SVM)  with the help of  Python code example for building a machine learning classification model. We will work with Python Sklearn package for building the model. As data scientists, it is important to get a good grasp on SVM algorithm and related aspects. What is Support Vector Machine (SVM)? Support vector machine (SVM) is a supervised machine learning algorithm that can be used for both classification and regression tasks. At times, SVM for classification is termed as support vector classification (SVC) and SVM for regression is termed as support vector regression (SVR). In this post, we will learn about SVM …

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## Logistic Regression Concepts, Python Example In this blog post, we will discuss the logistic regression machine learning algorithm with a python example. Logistic regression is a type of regression algorithm that is used to predict the probability of occurrence of an event. It is often used in machine learning applications. In this tutorial, we will use python to implement logistic regression for binary classification problems.  What is Logistic Regression? Logistic regression is a machine learning algorithm used for classification problems. That is, it can be used to predict whether an instance belongs to one class or the other. For example, it could be used to predict whether a person is male or female, based on …

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## Overfitting & Underfitting in Machine Learning The performance of the machine learning models depends upon two key concepts called underfitting and overfitting. In this post, you will learn about some of the key concepts of overfitting and underfitting in relation to machine learning models. In addition, you will also get a chance to test your understanding by attempting the quiz. The quiz will help you prepare well for interview questions in relation to underfitting & overfitting. As data scientists, you must get a good understanding of the overfitting and underfitting concepts.  Introduction to Overfitting & Underfitting Assuming an independent and identically distributed (I.I.d) dataset, when the prediction error on both the training and validation dataset is …

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## Python – Creating Scatter Plot with IRIS Dataset In this blog post, we will be learning how to create a Scatter Plot with the IRIS dataset using Python. The IRIS dataset is a collection of data that is used to demonstrate the properties of various statistical models. It contains information about 50 observations on four different variables: Petal Length, Petal Width, Sepal Length, and Sepal Width. As data scientists, it is important for us to be able to visualize the data that we are working with. Scatter plots are a great way to do this because they show the relationship between two variables. In this post, we have plotted and explored how how Petal Length and Sepal Length …

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## Supervised & Unsupervised Learning Difference Supervised and unsupervised learning are two different common types of machine learning tasks that are used to solve many different types of business problems. Supervised learning uses training data with labels to create supervised models, which can be used to predict outcomes for future datasets. Unsupervised learning is a type of machine learning task where the training data is not labeled or categorized in any way. For beginner data scientists, it is very important to get a good understanding of the difference between supervised and unsupervised learning. In this post, we will discuss how supervised and unsupervised algorithms work and what is difference between them. You may want to check …

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## Logit vs Probit Models: Differences, Examples Logit and probit models are statistical models that are used to model binary or dichotomous dependent variables. This means that the outcome of interest can only take on two possible values. In most cases, these models are used to predict whether or not something will happen. For example, a business might want to know if a particular advertising campaign will lead to an increase in sales. In this blog post, we will explain what logit and probit models are, and we will provide examples of how they can be used. As data scientists, it is important to understand the concepts of logit and probit models and when should they be …

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## Types of Probability Distributions: Codes, Examples In this post, you will learn the definition of 25 different types of probability distributions. Probability distributions play an important role in statistics and in many other fields, such as economics, engineering, and finance. They are used to model all sorts of real-world phenomena, from the weather to stock market prices. Before we get into understanding different types of probability distributions, let’s understand some fundamentals. If you are a data scientist, you would like to go through these distributions. This page could also be seen as a cheat sheet for probability distributions. What are Probability Distributions? Probability distributions are a way of describing how likely it is for a random …

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## Cross Entropy Loss Explained with Python Examples In this post, you will learn the concepts related to the cross-entropy loss function along with Python code examples and which machine learning algorithms use the cross-entropy loss function as an objective function for training the models. Cross-entropy loss is used as a loss function for models which predict the probability value as output (probability distribution as output). Logistic regression is one such algorithm whose output is a probability distribution. You may want to check out the details on how cross-entropy loss is related to information theory and entropy concepts – Information theory & machine learning: Concepts What’s Cross-Entropy Loss? Cross-entropy loss, also known as negative log likelihood loss, is … 