Category Archives: Machine Learning

Free IBM Data Sciences Courses on Coursera

Free Data Science Courses from IBM

In the rapidly evolving fields of Data Science and Artificial Intelligence, staying ahead means continually learning and adapting. In this blog, there is a list of around 20 free data science-related courses from IBM available on coursera.org that can help data science enthusiasts master different domains in AI / Data Science / Machine Learning. This list includes courses related to the core technical skills and knowledge needed to excel in these innovative fields. Foundational Knowledge: Understanding the essence of Data Science lays the groundwork for a successful career in this field. A solid foundation helps you grasp complex concepts easily and contributes to better decision-making, problem-solving, and the capacity to …

Continue reading

Posted in Career Planning, Data analytics, Data Science, Machine Learning, Online Courses, Python. Tagged with , , , .

Self-Supervised Learning vs Transfer Learning: Examples

self-supervised-learning vs transfer learning

Last updated: 3rd March, 2024 Understanding the difference between self-supervised learning and transfer learning, along with their practical applications, is crucial for any data scientist looking to optimize model performance and efficiency. Self-supervised learning and transfer learning are two pivotal techniques in machine learning, each with its unique approach to leveraging data for model training. Transfer learning capitalizes on a model pre-trained on a broad dataset with diverse categories, to serve as a foundational model for a more specialized task. his method relies on labeled data, often requiring significant human effort to label. Self-supervised learning, in contrast, pre-trains models using unlabeled data, creatively generating its labels from the inherent structure …

Continue reading

Posted in Data Science, Machine Learning, NLP. Tagged with , , .

Retrieval Augmented Generation (RAG) & LLM: Examples

Retrieval augmented Generation RAG pattern for LLMs

Last updated: 26th Jan, 2024 Have you ever wondered how to seamlessly integrate the vast knowledge of Large Language Models (LLMs) with the specificity of domain-specific knowledge stored in file storage, image storage, vector databases, etc? As the world of machine learning continues to evolve, the need for more sophisticated and contextually relevant responses from LLMs becomes paramount. Lack of contextual knowledge can result in LLM hallucination thereby producing inaccurate, unsafe, and factually incorrect responses. This is where context augmentation with prompts, and, hence retrieval augmentated generation method, comes into the picture. For data scientists and product managers keen on deploying LLMs in production, the Retrieval Augmented Generation pattern offers …

Continue reading

Posted in Generative AI, Machine Learning, NLP. Tagged with , , .

NLP Tokenization in Machine Learning: Python Examples

NLP Tokenization Types and Examples in Machine Learning

Last updated: 1st Feb, 2024 Tokenization is a fundamental step in Natural Language Processing (NLP) where text is broken down into smaller units called tokens. These tokens can be words, characters, or subwords, and this process is crucial for preparing text data for further analysis like parsing or text generation. Tokenization plays a crucial role in training machine learning models, particularly Large Language Models (LLMs) like GPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer) series, BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers), and others. Tokenization is often the first step in preparing text data for machine learning. LLMs use tokenization as an essential data preprocessing step. Advanced tokenization techniques (like those used in BERT) allow …

Continue reading

Posted in Machine Learning, NLP, Python. Tagged with , , .

Large Language Models (LLMs): Types, Examples

Large language models - LLM - building blocks

Last updated: 31st Jan, 2024 Large language models (LLMs), being the key pillar of generative AI, have been gaining traction in the world of natural language processing (NLP) due to their ability to process massive amounts of text and generate accurate results related to predicting the next word in a sentence, given all the previous words. These different LLM models are trained on a large or broad corpus of text datasets, which contain hundreds of millions to billions of words. LLMs, as they are known, rely on complex algorithms including transformer architectures that shift through large datasets and recognize patterns at the word level. This data helps the LLMs better understand …

Continue reading

Posted in Data Science, Deep Learning, Generative AI, Large Language Models, Machine Learning, NLP. Tagged with , .

Amazon (AWS) Machine Learning / AI Services List

amazon machine learning services

Last updated: 30th Jan, 2024 Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a cloud computing platform that offers machine learning as one of its many services. AWS has been around for over 10 years and has helped data scientists leverage the Amazon AWS cloud to train machine learning models. AWS provides an easy-to-use interface that helps data scientists build, test, and deploy their machine learning models with ease. AWS also provides access to pre-trained machine learning models so you can start building your model without having to spend time training it first! You can get greater details on AWS machine learning services, data science use cases, and other aspects in this book – …

Continue reading

Posted in AWS, Cloud, Data Science, Machine Learning. Tagged with , , .

LLM Optimization for Inference – Techniques, Examples

LLM Inference Optimization Techniques Examples

One of the common challenges faced with the deployment of large language models (LLMs) while achieving low-latency completions (inferences) is the size of the LLMs. The size of LLM throws challenges in terms of compute, storage, and memory requirements. And, the solution to this is to optimize the LLM deployment by taking advantage of model compression techniques that aim to reduce the size of the model. In this blog, we will look into three different optimization techniques namely pruning, quantization, and distillation along with their examples. These techniques help model load quickly while enabling reduced latency during LLM inference. They reduce the resource requirements for the compute, storage, and memory. …

Continue reading

Posted in Generative AI, Large Language Models, Machine Learning, NLP, Python. Tagged with , , , .

How is ChatGPT Trained to Generate Desired Responses?

ChatGPT Training Process and Response Generation

Last updated: 27th Jan, 2024 Training an AI / Machine Learning model as sophisticated as the one used by ChatGPT involves a multi-step process that fine-tunes its ability to understand and generate human-like text. Let’s break down the ChatGPT training process into three primary steps. Note that OpenAI has not published any specific paper on this. However, the reference has been provided on this page – Introducing ChatGPT. Fine-tuning Base Model with Supervised Learning The first phase starts with collecting demonstration data. Here, prompts are taken from a dataset, and human labelers provide the desired output behavior, which essentially sets the standard for the AI’s responses. For example, if the …

Continue reading

Posted in ChatGPT, Data Science, Machine Learning. Tagged with , .

Transfer Learning vs Fine Tuning LLMs: Differences

differences between transfer learning and fine tuning

Last updated: 23rd Jan, 2024 Two NLP concepts that are fundamental to large language models (LLMs) are transfer learning and fine-tuning pre-trained LLMs. Rather, true fine-tuning can also be termed as full fine-tuning because transfer learning is also a form of fine-tuning. Despite their interconnected nature, they are distinct methodologies that serve unique purposes when training foundation LLMs to achieve different objectives. In this blog, we will explore the differences between transfer Learning and full fine-tuning, learning about their characteristics and how they come into play in real-world scenarios related to natural language understanding (NLU) and natural language generation (NLG) tasks with the help of examples. We will also learn …

Continue reading

Posted in Deep Learning, Generative AI, Machine Learning, NLP. Tagged with , , , .

Generalization Errors in Machine Learning: Python Examples

Generalization Errors in Machine Learning

Last updated: 21st Jan, 2024 Machine Learning (ML) models are designed to make predictions or decisions based on data. However, a common challenge, data scientists face when developing these models is ensuring that they generalize well to new, unseen data. Generalization refers to a model’s ability to perform accurately on new, unseen examples after being trained on a limited set of data. When models don’t generalize well, they commit errors. These errors are called generalization errors. In this blog, you will learn about different types of generalization errors, with examples, and walk through a simple Python demonstration to illustrate these concepts. Types of Generalization Errors Generalization errors in machine learning …

Continue reading

Posted in Data Science, Machine Learning, Python. Tagged with , , .

Distributed LLM Training & DDP, FSDP Patterns: Examples

DDP vs FSDP for LLM Training

Training large language models (LLMs) like GPT-4 requires the use of distributed computing patterns as there is a need to work with vast amounts of data while training with LLMs having multi-billion parameters vis-a-vis limited GPU support (NVIDIA A100 with 80 GB currently) for LLM training. In this blog, we will delve deep into some of the most important distributed LLM training patterns such as distributed data parallel (DDP) and Fully sharded data parallel (FSDP). The primary difference between these patterns is based on how the model is split or sharded across GPUs in the system. You might want to check out greater details in this book: Generative AI on …

Continue reading

Posted in Deep Learning, Large Language Models, Machine Learning, NLP. Tagged with , , .

Transformer Architecture Types: Explained with Examples

encoder decoder architecture

Are you fascinated by the power of deep learning large language models that can generate creative writing, answer complex questions, etc? Ever wondered how these LLMs understand and process human language with such finesse? At the heart of these remarkable achievements lies a machine learning model architecture that has revolutionized the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) – the Transformer architecture and its types. But what makes Transformer models so special? From encoding sentences into numerical embeddings to employing attention mechanisms that capture the relationships between words, we will dissect different types of Transformer architectures, provide real-world examples, and even dive into the mathematics that governs its operation. Let’s explore …

Continue reading

Posted in Deep Learning, Generative AI, Machine Learning. Tagged with , , .

Blueprint: Deploying Generative AI Applications

Generative AI Applications Architecture

In this blog, we will learn about a comprehensive framework for the deployment of generative AI applications, breaking down the essential components that architects must consider. Learn more about this topic from this book: Generative AI on AWS. The following is a solution / technology architecture that represents a blueprint for deploying generative AI applications. The following is an explanation of the different components of this architectural viewpoint:

Posted in Generative AI, Machine Learning. Tagged with , .

BERT vs GPT Models: Differences, Examples

BERT base BERT Large neural network architectures

Have you been wondering what sets apart two of the most prominent transformer-based machine learning models in the field of NLP, Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) and Generative Pre-trained Transformers (GPT)? While BERT leverages encoder-only transformer architecture, GPT models are based on decoder-only transformer architecture. In this blog, we will delve into the core architecture, training objectives, real-world applications, examples, and more. By exploring these aspects, we’ll learn about the unique strengths and use cases of both BERT and GPT models, providing you with insights that can guide your next LLM-based NLP project or research endeavor. Differences between BERT vs GPT Models BERT, introduced in 2018, marked a significant …

Continue reading

Posted in Deep Learning, Generative AI, Machine Learning. Tagged with , , .

Demystifying Encoder Decoder Architecture & Neural Network

encoder decoder architecture

In the field of AI / machine learning, the encoder-decoder architecture is a widely-used framework for developing neural networks that can perform natural language processing (NLP) tasks such as language translation, text summarization, and question-answering systems, etc which require sequence-to-sequence modeling. This architecture involves a two-stage process where the input data is first encoded (using what is called an encoder) into a fixed-length numerical representation, which is then decoded (using a decoder) to produce an output that matches the desired format. In this blog, we will explore the inner workings of the encoder-decoder architecture, how it can be used to solve real-world problems, and some of the latest developments in …

Continue reading

Posted in Deep Learning, Generative AI, Machine Learning, NLP. Tagged with , , , .

NLP: Different Types of Language Models – Examples

Different types of language models in NLP

Have you ever wondered how your smartphone seems to know exactly what you’re going to type next? Or how virtual assistants like Alexa and Siri understand and respond to your queries with such precision? The magic is NLP language models. In this blog, we will explore the diverse types of language models in NLP that have evolved over time, each with its unique capabilities and applications. From the simplicity of N-gram models, which predict text based on preceding words, to the sophisticated neural network-based models like RNNs, LSTMs, and the groundbreaking large language models using Transformers, we will learn about the intricacies of these models, examples of real-world applications and …

Continue reading

Posted in Data Science, Large Language Models, Machine Learning, NLP, Python. Tagged with , .