# Category Archives: Machine Learning

## Machine Learning: Inference & Prediction Difference

In machine learning, prediction and inference are two different concepts. Prediction is the process of using a model to make a prediction about something that is yet to happen. The inference is the process of evaluating the relationship between the predictor and response variables. In this blog post, you will learn about the differences between prediction and inference with the help of examples. Before getting into the details related to inference & prediction, let’s quickly recall the machine learning basic concepts. What is machine learning and how is it related with inference & prediction? Machine learning is about learning an approximate function that can be used to predict the value …

## Sklearn Neural Network Example – MLPRegressor

Are you interested in using neural networks to solve complex regression problems, but not sure where to start? Sklearn’s MLPRegressor can help you get started with building neural network models for regression tasks. While the packages from Keras, Tensorflow or PyTorch are powerful and widely used in deep learning, Sklearn’s MLPRegressor is still an excellent choice for building neural network models for regression tasks when you are starting on. Recall that Python Sklearn library is one of the most popular machine learning libraries, and it provides a wide range of algorithms for classification, regression, clustering, dimensionality reduction, and more. In this blog post, we will be focusing on training a …

## Generative AI – Concepts, Use Cases, Examples

Machine learning has rapidly evolved over the past few years, with new techniques and methods emerging regularly. One of the most exciting and promising areas in this field is Generative AI. This is also termed as generative modeling. Generative AI or generative modeling refers to the modeling algorithms / methods which results in the creation of new data samples that are similar to existing data sets. This technique has gained immense popularity in recent times due to its ability to generate highly realistic images, videos, and music. As a data scientist, it is crucial to understand generative AI / modeling and its various applications. This powerful tool has been used …

## Neural Networks Interview Questions – Quiz #45

Are you preparing for a job interview in the field of deep learning or neural networks? If so, you’re likely aware of how complex and technical these topics can be. In order to help you prepare, we’ve put together a list of common neural network interview questions and answers in form of multiple-choice quiz. The quiz in this blog post covers basic concepts related to neural network layers, perceptron, multilayer perceptron, activation functions, feedforward networks, backpropagation, and more. We’ve included 15 multiple-choice questions, as well as 5 additional questions specifically focused on the backpropagation algorithm. I will be posting many more quizzes on the neural networks in time to come, …

## Google’s Free Machine Learning Courses: Learn from the Best

Machine learning has become a fundamental part of almost every industry today. With the increasing demand for data scientists and machine learning engineers, it has become imperative for professionals to keep themselves updated with the latest tools and techniques. Fortunately, Google offers a range of free machine learning courses that cater to professionals of all expertise levels. In this blog, we will explore the top Google machine learning courses that will help learners enhance their skills and stay ahead of the game. List of Free Machine Learning Courses by Google The following is a list of free machine learning courses from Google which you can take online. These courses can …

## Large language models: Concepts & Examples

Large language models (LLMs) have been gaining traction in the world of natural language processing (NLP) due to their ability to process massive amounts of text and generate accurate results. These models are trained on large datasets, which contain hundreds of millions to billions of words. LLMs, as they are known, rely on complex algorithms including transformer architectures that shift through large datasets and recognize patterns at the word level. This data helps the model better understand natural language and how it is used in context and then make predictions related to text generation, text classification, etc. This blog post aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of large language models, their …

## Lung Disease Prediction using Machine Learning

Lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are a leading cause of death worldwide. Early detection and treatment are critical for improving patient outcomes, but diagnosing lung diseases can be challenging. Machine learning (ML) models are transforming the field of pulmonology by enabling faster and more accurate prediction of lung diseases including COPD. In this blog, we’ll discuss the challenges of detecting / predicting lung diseases using machine learning, the clinical dataset used in research, supervised learning method used for building machine learning models. Challenges in Detecting Lung Diseases with Machine Learning Detecting and predicting lung diseases using machine learning can be challenging due to a lack of labeled …

## KMeans Silhouette Score Python Example

If you’re building machine learning models for solving different prediction problems, you’ve probably heard of clustering. Clustering is a popular unsupervised learning technique used to group data points with similar features into distinct clusters. One of the most widely used clustering algorithms is KMeans, which is popular due to its simplicity and efficiency. However, one major challenge in clustering is determining the optimal number of clusters that should be used to group the data points. This is where the Silhouette Score comes into play, as it helps us measure the quality of clustering and determine the optimal number of clusters. Silhouette score helps us get further clarity for the following …

## Linear Regression Explained with Real Life Example

In this post, the linear regression concept in machine learning is explained with multiple real-life examples. Both types of regression models (simple/univariate and multiple/multivariate linear regression) are taken up for sighting examples. In case you are a machine learning or data science beginner, you may find this post helpful enough. You may also want to check a detailed post on what is machine learning – What is Machine Learning? Concepts & Examples. Before going into the details, lets look at a small poem which can help us remember the concept of linear regression. Hope you like it. Linear Regression, a machine learning delight Fitting a line, to make predictions right …

## Why & When to use Eigenvalues & Eigenvectors?

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors are important concepts in linear algebra that have numerous applications in data science. They provide a way to analyze the structure of linear transformations and matrices, and are used extensively in many areas of machine learning, including feature extraction, dimensionality reduction, and clustering. In simple terms, eigenvalues and eigenvectors are the building blocks of linear transformations. Eigenvalues represent the scaling factor by which a vector is transformed when a linear transformation is applied, while eigenvectors represent the directions in which the transformation occurs. In this post, you will learn about why and when you need to use Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors? As a data scientist/machine learning Engineer, one must …

## Machine Learning – Sensitivity vs Specificity Difference

Machine learning (ML) models are increasingly being used to learn from data and make decisions or predictions based on that learning. When it comes to evaluating the performance of these ML models, there are several important metrics to consider. One of the most important metrics is the accuracy of the model, which is typically measured using sensitivity and specificity. These two metrics are critical in determining the effectiveness of a machine learning model In this post, we will try and understand the concepts behind machine learning model evaluation metrics such as sensitivity and specificity. The post also describes the differences between sensitivity and specificity. You may want to check out another …

## Amazon Bedrock to Democratize Generative AI

Amazon Web Services (AWS) has announced the launch of Amazon Bedrock and Amazon Titan foundational models (FMs), making it easier for customers to build and scale generative AI applications with foundation models. According to AWS, they received feedback from their select customers that there are a few big things standing in their way today in relation to different AI use cases. First, they need a straightforward way to find and access high-performing FMs that give outstanding results and are best-suited for their purposes. Second, customers want integration into applications to be seamless, without having to manage huge clusters of infrastructure or incur large costs. Finally, customers want it to be …

## K-Means Clustering Python Example

Clustering is a popular unsupervised machine learning technique used in data analysis to group similar data points together. The K-Means clustering algorithm is one of the most commonly used clustering algorithms due to its simplicity, efficiency, and effectiveness on a wide range of datasets. In K-Means clustering, the goal is to divide a given dataset into K clusters, where each data point belongs to the cluster with the nearest mean value. The algorithm works by iteratively updating the cluster centroids until convergence is achieved. In this post, you will learn about K-Means clustering concepts with the help of fitting a K-Means model using Python Sklearn KMeans clustering implementation. You will …

## Lasso Regression Explained with Python Example

Lasso regression, also known as L1 regularization, is a linear regression method that uses regularization to prevent overfitting and improve model performance. It works by adding a penalty term to the cost function that encourages the model to select only the most important features and set the coefficients of less important features to zero. This makes Lasso regression a popular method for feature selection and high-dimensional data analysis. In this post, you will learn concepts, advantages and limitations of Lasso regression along with Python Sklearn examples. The other two similar forms of regularized linear regression are Ridge regression and Elasticnet regression which will be discussed in future posts. What’s Lasso Regression? …

## SVM RBF Kernel Parameters: Python Examples

Support vector machines (SVM) are a popular and powerful machine learning technique for classification and regression tasks. SVM models are based on the concept of finding the optimal hyperplane that separates the data into different classes. One of the key features of SVMs is the ability to use different kernel functions to model non-linear relationships between the input variables and the output variable. One such kernel is the radial basis function (RBF) kernel, which is a popular choice for SVMs due to its flexibility and ability to capture complex relationships between the input and output variables. The RBF kernel has two important parameters: gamma and C (also called regularization parameter). …

## Ordinary Least Squares Method: Concepts & Examples

Regression analysis is a fundamental statistical technique used in many fields, from finance to social sciences. It involves modeling the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. The Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method is one of the most commonly used techniques for regression analysis. Ordinary least squares (OLS) is a linear regression technique used to find the best-fitting line for a set of data points by minimizing the residuals (the differences between the observed and predicted values). It does so by estimating the coefficients of a linear regression model by minimizing the sum of the squared differences between the observed values of the dependent variable and …