# Author Archives: Ajitesh Kumar

## Data Storytelling Explained with Examples

In this post, you will learn about some of the key concepts in relation to data storytelling and why data scientists / data analyst should acquire this skill. Data storytelling is one of the key skills which data scientists would need to acquire in order to do a great job in representing the data with story. Most of the time, it has been seen that data scientists merely present multiple plots with the sole aim of showing the logic and reasoning. However, it is equally important to represent the data as story as it results in an emotional connect with stakeholders and help them make the decisions. Thus, data scientists …

## How to Setup / Install MLFlow & Get Started

In this post, you will learn about how to setup / install MLFlow right from your Jupyter Notebook and get started tracking your machine learning projects. This would prove to be very helpful if you are running an enterprise-wide AI practice where you have a bunch of data scientists working on different ML projects. Mlflow will help you track the score of different experiments related to different ML projects. Install MLFlow using Jupyter Notebook In order to install / set up MLFlow and do a quick POC, you could get started right from within your Jupyter notebook. Here are the commands to get set up. Mlflow could be installed with …

## Python – How to Add Trend Line to Line Chart / Graph

In this plot, you will learn about how to add trend line to the line chart / line graph using Python Matplotlib.As a data scientist, it proves to be helpful to learn the concepts and related Python code which can be used to draw or add the trend line to the line charts as it helps understand the trend and make decisions. In this post, we will consider an example of IPL average batting scores of Virat Kohli, Chris Gayle, MS Dhoni and Rohit Sharma of last 10 years, and, assess the trend related to their overall performance using trend lines. Let’s say that main reason why we want to …

## Top Tutorials – Neural Network Back Propagation Algorithm

Here are the top web pages /videos for learning back propagation algorithm used to compute the gradients in neural network. I will update this page with more tutorials as I do further deep dive on back propagation algorithm. For beginners or expert level data scientists / machine learning enthusiasts, these tutorials will prove to be very helpful. Before going ahead and understanding back propagation algorithm from different pages, lets quickly understand the key components of neural network algorithm: Feed forward algorithm: Feed forward algorithm represents the aspect of how input signals travel through different neurons present in different layers in form of weighted sums and activations, and, result in output / …

## Product Manager – Machine Learning Interview Questions

In this post, you will learn about some of the interview questions which can be asked in the AI / machine learning based product manager / business analyst job. Some of the questions listed in this post can also prove to be useful for the interview for the job position of director or vice president, product management. The interview questions can be categorized based on some of the following topics: Machine learning high level concepts Identifying a problem as machine learning problems Identifying business metrics vs value generation Feature engineering Working with data science team in model development lifecycle Monitoring model performance Model performance metrics presentation to key stakeholders Setting up …

## Different Types of Activation Functions using Animation

In this post, you will be seeing different types of activation functions used in neural networks in form of an animation. If you are starting on deep learning and wanted to know about different types of activation functions, you may want to bookmark this page for quicker access in future. Without further ado, let’s take a look at the animation which represents different types of activation functions: Here is the list of different types of activation functions shown in above animation: Identity function (Used in Adaline – Adaptive Linear Neuron) Sigmoid function Tanh functon ArcTan function (inverse tangent function) ReLU (Rectified Linear Unit) Leaky ReLU (Improved version of ReLU) Randomized …

## Feed Forward Neural Network Python Example

In this post, you will learn about the concepts of feed forward neural network along with Python code example. In order to get good understanding on deep learning concepts, it is of utmost importance to learn the concepts behind feed forward neural network in a clear manner. Feed forward neural network learns the weights based on back propagation algorithm which will be discussed in future posts. In this post, the following topics are covered: What’s feed forward neural network? Feed forward neural network Python example What’s Feed Forward Neural Network? Feed forward neural network represents the mechanism in which the input signals fed forward into a neural network, passes through different layers of the …

## What’s Softmax Function & Why do we need it?

In this post, you will learn about the concepts of Softmax function with Python code example and why do we need Softmax function? As a data scientist / machine learning enthusiasts, it is very important to understand the concepts of Softmax function as it helps in understanding the algorithms such as neural network, multinomial logistic regression in better manner. Note that Softmax function is used in various multiclass classification machine learning algorithms such as multinomial logistic regression (thus, also called as softmax regression), neural networks etc. What’s Softmax Function? Simply speaking, Softmax function converts raw values (as outcome of functions) into probabilities. Here is how the softmax function looks like: …

## Get Started with Julia – Hello World

In this post, you will learn about instructions to set up Julia and getting started with Julia using Anaconda / Jupyter Notebook with information on learning resources in relation to Data Sciences / Machine Learning. Download & Setup Julia First and foremost, let’s get set up / install Julia. Go to the Julia download page and download the install package based on your operating system. I downloaded the dmg file for Mac, double clicked on the dmg file and installed the Julia. The installation was pretty easy. Double-click on Julia application or execute Julia command and it starts an interactive session (terminal) also known as REPL session. The simplest way …

## Cross Entropy Loss Explained with Python Examples

In this post, you will learn the concepts related to cross-entropy loss function along with Python and which machine learning algorithms use cross entropy loss function as an optimization function. Cross entropy loss is used as a loss function for models which predict the probability value as output (probability distribution as output). Logistic regression is one such algorithm whose output is probability distribution. In this post, the following topics are covered: What’s cross entropy loss? Cross entropy loss explained with Python examples What’s Cross Entropy Loss? Cross entropy loss function is an optimization function which is used for training machine learning classification models which classifies the data by predicting the …

## Python Sklearn – How to Generate Random Datasets

In this post, you will learn about some useful random datasets generators provided by Python Sklearn. There are many methods provided as part of Sklearn.datasets package. In this post, we will take the most common ones such as some of the following which could be used for creating data sets for doing proof-of-concepts solution for regression, classification and clustering machine learning algorithms. As data scientists, you must get familiar with these methods in order to quickly create the datasets for training models using different machine learning algorithms. Methods for generating datasets for Classification Methods for generating datasets for Regression Methods for Generating Datasets for Classification The following is the list of …

## Neural Networks and Mathematical Models Examples

In this post, you will learn about concepts of neural networks with the help of mathematical models examples. In simple words, you will learn about how to represent the neural networks using mathematical equations. As a data scientist / machine learning researcher, it would be good to get a sense of how the neural networks can be converted into a bunch of mathematical equations for calculating different values. Having a good understanding of representing the activation function output of different computation units / nodes / neuron in different layers would help in understanding back propagation algorithm in a better and easier manner. This will be dealt in one of the …

## Adaline Explained with Python Example

In this post, you will learn the concepts of Adaline (ADAptive LInear NEuron), a machine learning algorithm, along with Python example.As like Perceptron, it is important to understand the concepts of Adaline as it forms the foundation of learning neural networks. The concept of Perceptron and Adaline could found to be useful in understanding how gradient descent can be used to learn the weights which when combined with input signals is used to make predictions based on unit step function output. Here are the topics covered in this post in relation to Adaline algorithm and its Python implementation: What’s Adaline? Adaline Python implementation Model trained using Adaline implementation What’s Adaline? …

## Perceptron Explained using Python Example

In this post, you will learn about the concepts of Perceptron with the help of Python example. It is very important for data scientists to understand the concepts related to Perceptron as a good understanding lays the foundation of learning advanced concepts of neural networks including deep neural networks (deep learning). In this post, the following topics are covered: What is Perceptron? Perceptron Python code example What is Perceptron? Perceptron is a machine learning algorithm which mimics how a neuron in the brain works. It is also called as single layer neural network as the output is decided based on the outcome of just one activation function which represents a neuron. Let’s first understand …

## Stochastic Gradient Descent Python Example

In this post, you will learn the concepts of Stochastic Gradient Descent using Python example. In order to demonstrate Stochastic gradient descent concepts, Perceptron machine learning algorithm is used. Recall that Perceptron is also called as single-layer neural network. Before getting into details, lets quickly understand the concepts of Perceptron and underlying learning algorithm such SGD is used. You may want to check out the concepts of gradient descent on this page – Gradient Descent explained with examples. The following topics are covered in this post: Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) for Learning Perceptron Model Perceptron algorithm can be used to train binary classifier that classifies the data as either 1 or 0. …

## Yann LeCun Deep Learning Free Online Course

This post is about listing down free online course materials for deep learning (PyTorch) by none other than Yann LeCun. Here are some useful links to the deep learning course: Deep Learning course – Homepage Deep learning lecture slides Github pages having Jupyter notebooks having PyTorch code Lectures slides, notebooks and related YouTube videos can be found on the deep learning (DL) course home page. It is a 14 week course and covers different topics such as following: Introduction to deep learning (What DL can do, what are good features / representations) Gradient descent and back propagation algorithm Artificial neural networks Convolution neural networks (Convnets) and related applications Regularization / Optimization …