# Category Archives: Python

## NLP Tokenization in Machine Learning: Python Examples

Last updated: 1st Feb, 2024 Tokenization is a fundamental step in Natural Language Processing (NLP) where text is broken down into smaller units called tokens. These tokens can be words, characters, or subwords, and this process is crucial for preparing text data for further analysis like parsing or text generation. Tokenization plays a crucial role in training machine learning models, particularly Large Language Models (LLMs) like GPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer) series, BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers), and others. Tokenization is often the first step in preparing text data for machine learning. LLMs use tokenization as an essential data preprocessing step. Advanced tokenization techniques (like those used in BERT) allow …

## LLM Optimization for Inference – Techniques, Examples

One of the common challenges faced with the deployment of large language models (LLMs) while achieving low-latency completions (inferences) is the size of the LLMs. The size of LLM throws challenges in terms of compute, storage, and memory requirements. And, the solution to this is to optimize the LLM deployment by taking advantage of model compression techniques that aim to reduce the size of the model. In this blog, we will look into three different optimization techniques namely pruning, quantization, and distillation along with their examples. These techniques help model load quickly while enabling reduced latency during LLM inference. They reduce the resource requirements for the compute, storage, and memory. …

## Generalization Errors in Machine Learning: Python Examples

Last updated: 21st Jan, 2024 Machine Learning (ML) models are designed to make predictions or decisions based on data. However, a common challenge, data scientists face when developing these models is ensuring that they generalize well to new, unseen data. Generalization refers to a model’s ability to perform accurately on new, unseen examples after being trained on a limited set of data. When models don’t generalize well, they commit errors. These errors are called generalization errors. In this blog, you will learn about different types of generalization errors, with examples, and walk through a simple Python demonstration to illustrate these concepts. Types of Generalization Errors Generalization errors in machine learning …

## NLP: Different Types of Language Models – Examples

Have you ever wondered how your smartphone seems to know exactly what you’re going to type next? Or how virtual assistants like Alexa and Siri understand and respond to your queries with such precision? The magic is NLP language models. In this blog, we will explore the diverse types of language models in NLP that have evolved over time, each with its unique capabilities and applications. From the simplicity of N-gram models, which predict text based on preceding words, to the sophisticated neural network-based models like RNNs, LSTMs, and the groundbreaking large language models using Transformers, we will learn about the intricacies of these models, examples of real-world applications and …

## Bag of Words in NLP & Machine Learning: Examples

Last updated: 6th Jan, 2024 Most machine learning algorithms require numerical input for training the models. Bag of words (BoW) effectively converts text data into numerical feature vectors, making it compatible with a wide range of machine learning algorithms, from linear classifiers like logistic regression to complex ones like neural networks. In this post, you will learn about the concepts of bag-of-words model and how to train a text classification model using Python Sklearn. Some of the most common text classification problems includes sentiment analysis, spam filtering etc. In these problems, one can apply bag-of-words technique to train machine learning models for text classification. It will be good to understand the …

## Cohen Kappa Score Explained: Formula, Example

Last updated: 5th Jan, 2024 Cohen’s Kappa Score is a statistic used to measure the performance of machine learning classification models. In this blog post, we will discuss what Cohen’s Kappa Score is and Python code example representing how to calculate Kappa score using Python. We will also provide a code example so that you can see how it works! What is Cohen’s Kappa Score or Coefficient? Cohen’s Kappa Score, also known as the Kappa Coefficient, is a statistical measure of inter-rater agreement for categorical data. Cohen’s Kappa Coefficient is named after statistician Jacob Cohen, who developed the metric in 1960. It is generally used in situations where there …

## K-Fold Cross Validation in Machine Learning – Python Example

Last updated: 3rd Jan, 2024 In this post, you will learn about K-fold Cross-Validation concepts used while training machine learning models with the help of Python code examples. K-fold cross-validation is a data splitting technique that can be implemented with k > 1 folds. K-Fold Cross Validation is also known as k-cross, k-fold cross-validation, k-fold CV, and k-folds. The k-fold cross-validation technique can be implemented easily using Python with scikit learn (Sklearn) package which provides an easy way to implement training of k-fold cross-validation models. It is important to learn the concepts of k-fold cross-validation concepts in order to perform model tuning with the end goal to choose a model which has …

## Machine Learning Models Solution Design: Examples

This blog is crafted for data scientists, machine learning (ML) and software engineers, business analysts / product managers, and anyone involved in the ML project lifecycle, aiming to create a reliable solution design and development strategy / plan for successful AI / machine learning project implementation and value realization. The blog revolves around a series of critical solution design questions, meticulously curated to guide teams from the initial conception of a project to its final deployment and beyond. By addressing each of these solution design questions, teams can ensure that they are not only building a model that is technically proficient but also one that aligns seamlessly with business objectives, …

## Micro-average, Macro-average, Weighting: Precision, Recall, F1-Score

Last updated: 30th Dec, 2023 In this post, you will learn about how to use micro-averaging and macro-averaging methods for evaluating scoring metrics (precision, recall, f1-score) for multi-class classification machine learning problem. You will also learn about weighting method used as one of the other averaging choices of metrics such as precision, recall and f1-score for multi-class classification problem. The concepts will be explained with Python code examples. What & Why of Micro, Macro-averaging and Weighting metrics? Micro and macro-averaging methods are used in the evaluation of classification models, to compute performance metrics like precision, recall, and F1-score. These methods are especially relevant in scenarios involving multi-class or multi-label classification. In case of multi-class classification, …

## ROC Curve & AUC Explained with Python Examples

Last updated: 29th Dec, 2023 Confusion among data scientists regarding ROC Curve and AUC often stems from misunderstanding their relationship. The ROC Curve visualizes true positive vs false positive rates at various thresholds, while AUC quantifies the overall ability of a model to discriminate between classes, with higher values indicating better performance. In this post, you will learn about ROC Curve and AUC concepts along with related concepts such as True positive and false positive rate with the help of Python examples. It is very important to learn ROC, AUC and related concepts as it helps in selecting the most appropriate machine learning classification models based on the model performance. What is …

## Accuracy, Precision, Recall & F1-Score – Python Examples

Last updated: 29th Dec, 2023 Classification models are used in classification problems to predict the target class of the data sample. The classification machine learning models predicts the probability that each instance belongs to one class or another. It is important to evaluate the performance of the classifications model in order to reliably use these models in production for solving real-world problems. The performance metrics include accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score. Because it helps us understand the strengths and limitations of these models when making predictions in new situations, model performance is essential for machine learning. The most common question asked is what is accuracy, precision, recall and f1 score? In …

## Mean Squared Error or R-Squared – Which one to use?

Last updated: 29th Dec, 2023 As you embark on your journey to understand and evaluate the performance of regression models, it’s crucial to know when to use each of these metrics and what they reveal about your model’s accuracy. In this post, you will learn about the concepts of the mean-squared error (MSE) and R-squared (R2), the difference between them, and which one to use when evaluating the linear regression models. Note that MSE is very closely related to root mean squared error (RMSE) which is also discussed in this blog. You also learn Python examples to understand the concepts in a better manner. For learning the differences between other …

## Python – Replace Missing Values with Mean, Median & Mode

Last updated: 18th Dec, 2023 Have you found yourself asking question such as how to deal with missing values in data analysis stage? When working with Python, have you been troubled with question such as how to replace missing values in Pandas data frame? Well, missing values are common in dealing with real-world problems when the data is aggregated over long time stretches from disparate sources, and reliable machine learning modeling demands for careful handling of missing data. One strategy is imputing the missing values, and a wide variety of algorithms exist spanning simple interpolation (mean, median, mode), matrix factorization methods like SVD, statistical models like Kalman filters, and deep …

## Standard Deviation of Population vs Sample

Last updated: 18th Dec, 2023 Have you ever wondered what the difference between standard deviation of population and a sample? Or why and when it’s important to measure the standard deviation of both? In this blog post, we will explore what standard deviation is, the differences between the standard deviation of population and samples, and how to calculate their values using their formula and Python code example. By the end of this post, you should have a better understanding of standard deviation in general and why it’s important to calculate it for both populations and samples. Check out my related post – coefficient of variation vs standard deviation. What is …

## Linear Regression vs. Polynomial Regression: Python Examples

In the realm of predictive modeling and data science, regression analysis stands as a cornerstone technique. It’s essential for understanding relationships in data, forecasting trends, and making informed decisions. This guide delves into the nuances of Linear Regression and Polynomial Regression, two fundamental approaches, highlighting their practical applications with Python examples. What are Linear and Polynomial Regression? In this section, we will learn about what are linear and polynomial regression. What is Linear Regression? Linear Regression is a statistical method used in predictive analysis. It’s a straightforward approach for modeling the relationship between a dependent variable (often denoted as y) and one or more independent variables (denoted as x). In …

## Random Forest vs XGBoost: Which One to Use? Examples

Understanding the differences between XGBoost and Random Forest machine learning algorithm is crucial as it guides the selection of the most appropriate model for a given problem. Random Forest, with its simplicity and parallel computation, is ideal for quick model development and when dealing with large datasets, whereas XGBoost, with its sequential tree building and regularization, excels in achieving higher accuracy, especially in scenarios where overfitting is a concern. This knowledge can be helpful to balance between computational efficiency and predictive performance, tailor models to specific data characteristics, and optimize their approach for either rapid prototyping or precision-focused tasks. In this blog, we will learn the difference between Random Forest …

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