Category Archives: Machine Learning

Most Common Types of Machine Learning Problems

In this post, you will learn about the most common types of machine learning (ML) problems along with a few examples. Without further ado, let’s look at these problem types and understand the details. Regression Classification Clustering Time-series forecasting Anomaly detection Ranking Recommendation Data generation Optimization Problem types Details Algorithms Regression When the need is to predict numerical values, such kinds of problems are called regression problems. For example, house price prediction Linear regression, K-NN, random forest, neural networks Classification When there is a need to classify the data in different classes, it is called a classification problem. If there are two classes, it is called a binary classification problem. …

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Historical Dates & Timeline for Deep Learning

deep learning timeline

This post is a quick check on the timeline including historical dates in relation to the evolution of deep learning. Without further ado, let’s get to the important dates and what happened on those dates in relation to deep learning: Year Details/Paper Information Who’s who 1943 An artificial neuron was proposed as a computational model of the “nerve net” in the brain. Paper: “A logical calculus of the ideas immanent in nervous activity,” Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics, volume 5, 1943 Warren McCulloch, Walter Pitts Late 1950s A neural network application by reducing noise in phone lines was developed Paper: Andrew Goldstein, “Bernard Widrow oral history,” IEEE Global History Network, 1997 Bernard …

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Great Mind Maps for Learning Machine Learning

machine learning mind map

In this post, you will get to look at some of the great mind-maps for learning different machine learning topics. I have gathered these mind maps from different web pages on the Internet. The idea is to reinforce our understanding of different machine learning topics using pictures. You may have heard the proverb – A picture is worth a thousand words.  Keeping this in mind, I thought to pull some of the great mind maps posted on different web pages. I would be updating this blog post from time-to-time.  If you are a beginner data scientist or an experienced one, you may want to bookmark this page for refreshing your …

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Different Types of Distance Measures in Machine Learning

Euclidean Distance formula

In this post, you will learn different types of distance measures used in different machine learning algorithms such as K-nearest neighbours, K-means etc. Distance measures are used to measure the similarity between two or more vectors in multi-dimensional space. The following represents different forms of distance metrics / measures: Geometric distances Computational distances Statistical distances Geometric Distance Measures Geometric distance metrics, primarily, tends to measure the similarity between two or more vectors solely based on the distance between two points in multi-dimensional space. The examples of such type of geometric distance measures are Minkowski distance, Euclidean distance and Manhattan distance. One other different form of geometric distance is cosine similarity which will discuss …

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Machine Learning Terminologies for Beginners

ML Terminologies Hypothesis Space

When starting on the journey of learning machine learning and data science, we come across several different terminologies when going through different articles/posts, books & video lectures. Getting a good understanding of these terminologies and related concepts will help us understand these concepts in a nice manner. At a senior level, it gets tricky at times when the team of data scientists / ML engineers explain their projects and related outcomes. With this in context, this post lists down a set of commonly used machine learning terminologies that will help us get a good understanding of ML concepts and also engage with the DS / AI / ML team in …

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Machine Learning Free Course at Univ Wisconsin Madison

Dr Sebastian Raschka Machine Learning Course

In this post, you will learn about the free course on machine learning (STAT 451) recently taught at University of Wisconsin-Madison by Dr. Sebastian Raschka. Dr. Sebastian Raschka in currently working as an assistant Professor of Statistics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison while focusing on deep learning and machine learning research. The course is titled as “Introduction to Machine Learning”. The recording of the course lectures can be found on the page – Introduction to machine learning. The course covers some of the following topics: What is machine learning? Nearest neighbour methods Computational foundation Python Programming (concepts) Machine learning in Scikit-learn Tree-based methods Decision trees Ensemble methods Model evaluation techniques Concepts of …

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MIT Free Course on Machine Learning (New)

MIT Free Course on Machine Learning

In this post, the information regarding new free course on machine learning launched by MIT OpenCourseware. In case, you are a beginner data scientist or ML Engineer, you will find this course to be very useful.  Here is the URL to the free course on machine learning: https://bit.​ly/37iNNAA. This course, titled as Introduction to Machine Learning, introduces principles, algorithms, and applications of machine learning from the point of view of modeling and prediction. It includes formulation of learning problems and concepts of representation, over-fitting, and generalization. These concepts are exercised in supervised learning and reinforcement learning, with applications to images and to temporal sequences. Here are some of the key topics for which lectures can be found: …

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Gradient Boosting Regression Python Examples

Gradient Boosting Regressor Feature Importances

In this post, you will learn about the concepts of Gradient Boosting Regression with the help of Python Sklearn code example. Gradient Boosting algorithm is one of the key boosting machine learning algorithms apart from AdaBoost and XGBoost.  What is Gradient Boosting Regression? Gradient Boosting algorithm is used to generate an ensemble model by combining the weak learners or weak predictive models. Gradient boosting algorithm can be used to train models for both regression and classification problem. Gradient Boosting Regression algorithm is used to fit the model which predicts the continuous value. Gradient boosting builds an additive mode by using multiple decision trees of fixed size as weak learners or …

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500+ Machine Learning Interview Questions

machine learning interview questions

This post consists of all the posts on this website in relation to interview questions / quizzes related to data science / machine learning topics.  These questions can prove to be helpful for the following: Product managers Data scientists Product Managers Interview Questions Find the questions for product managers on this page – Machine learning interview questions for product managers Data Scientists Interview Questions Here are posts representing 500+ interview questions which will be helpful for data scientists / machine learning engineers. You will find it useful as practise questions and answers while preparing for machine learning interview. Decision tree questions Machine learning validation techniques questions Neural networks questions – …

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Predictive vs Prescriptive Analytics Difference

In this post, you will quickly learn about the difference  between  predictive analytics and prescriptive analytics. As data analytics stakeholders, one must get a good understanding of these concepts in order to decide when to apply predictive and when to make use of prescriptive analytics in analytics solutions / applications. Without further ado, let’s get straight to the diagram.  In the above diagram, you could observe / learn the following: Predictive analytics: In predictive analytics, the model is trained using historical / past data based on supervised, unsupervised, reinforcement learning algorithms. Once trained, the new data / observation is input to the trained model. The output of the model is prediction in form …

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Top 10 Analytics Strategies for Great Data Products

In this post, you will learn about the top 10 data analytics strategies which will help you create successful data products. These strategies will be helpful in case you are setting up a data analytics practice or center of excellence (COE). As an AI / Machine Learning / Data Science stakeholders, it will be important to understand these strategies in order to deliver analytics solution which creates business value having positive business impact.  Here are the top 10 data analytics strategies: Identify top 2-3 business problems Identify related business / engineering organizations Create measurement plan by identifying right KPIs Identify analytics deliverables such as analytics reports, predictions etc Gather data …

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Keras CNN Image Classification Example

In this post, you will learn about how to train a Keras Convolution Neural Network (CNN) for image classification. Before going ahead and looking at the Python / Keras code examples and related concepts, you may want to check my post on Convolution Neural Network – Simply Explained in order to get a good understanding of CNN concepts. Keras CNN Image Classification Code Example First and foremost, we will need to get the image data for training the model. In this post, Keras CNN used for image classification uses the Kaggle Fashion MNIST dataset. Fashion-MNIST is a dataset of Zalando’s article images—consisting of a training set of 60,000 examples and a …

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Data Quality Challenges for Machine Learning Models

In this post, you will learn about some of the key data quality challenges which need to be dealt with in a consistent and sustained manner to ensure high quality machine learning models. Note that high quality models can be termed as models which generalizes better (lower true error with predictions) with unseen data or data derived from larger population. As a data science architect or quality assurance (QA) professional dealing with quality of machine learning models, you must learn some of these challenges and plan appropriate development processes to deal with these challenges.   Here are some of the key data quality challenges which need to be tackled appropriately in …

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Data Quality Assessment Frameworks – Machine Learning

data quality assessment framework for machine learning

In this post, you will learn about data quality assessment frameworks / techniques in relation to machine learning and why one needs to assess data quality for building high-performance machine learning models? As a data science architect or development manager, you must get a sense of the importance of data quality in relation to building high-performance machine learning models. The idea is to understand what is the value of data set. The goal is to determine whether the value of data can be quantised. This is because it is important to understand whether the data contains rich information which could be valuable for building models and inform stakeholders on data …

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Posted in Data Science, Machine Learning.

Python Keras – Learning Curve for Classification Model

Training & Validation Accuracy & Loss of Keras Neural Network Model

In this post, you will learn about how to train an optimal neural network using Learning Curves and Python Keras. As a data scientist, it is good to understand the concepts of learning curve vis-a-vis neural network classification model to select the most optimal configuration of neural network for training high-performance neural network. In this post, the following topics have been covered: Concepts related to training a classification model using a neural network Python Keras code for creating the most optimal neural network using a learning curve  Training a Classification Neural Network Model using Keras Here are some of the key aspects of training a neural network classification model using Keras: …

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Free MIT Course on Machine Learning for Healthcare

machine learning and healthcare MIT free course

In this post, you will get a quick overview on free MIT course on machine learning for healthcare. This is going to be really helpful for machine learning / data science enthusiasts as building machine learning solutions to serve healthcare requirements comes with its own set of risks. It will be good to learn about different machine learning techniques, applications related disease progression modeling, cardiac imaging, pathology etc, risks and risk mitigation techniques. Here is the link to the course – Machine Learning for Healthcare Here are the links to some of the important course content: Video lectures Lecture notes (PDF) The entire course material can be downloaded from this page – …

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